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ABSTRACTS FOR POSTER PRESENTATION: 6TH CONVENTION



ABSTRACTS FOR POSTER PRESENTATION: 6TH CONVENTION

1. BIO-EFFICACY EVALUATION OF SSF-126 SC FOR THE CONTROL OF MAJOR DISEASES OF CARABAO MANGO AT MATALAM, COTABATO, PHILIPPINES

Naomi G. Tangonan & Ariel B. Alojado

Respectively, Faculty Researcher and Research Assistant, Plant Pathology Research Laboratory, Crops Research Division, University of
Southern Mindanao Agricultural Research Center (USMARC), USM,
Kabacan, Cotabato Tel/Fax 064-248-2610
Email: ngtangonan@gmail.com


Abstract

SSF-126 20% SC (coded fungicide) was tested for its bio-efficacy on major diseases of mango (Carabao variety) in a farmer’s field at Kilada, Matalam, Cotabato. Results showed that disease control was significantly different among treatments when compared to the untreated control as to incidence of blossom or panicle blight. Disease incidence and disease severity (DS) were significantly lower on SSF-126 20% SC-treated trees compared to the other fungicide treatment Score with highest DS on untreated control. Similarly for anthracnose and scab diseases, SSF-126 20% SC-treated trees had lower incidence and disease severity compared to the other treatments and significantly lower compared to the untreated control. As to yield (50 fruits sampled/ treatment), SSF-126 20% SC-treated mango fruits were significantly heavier at 16.25 to 18.79 kg compared to the untreated control at 11.88 kg. Other yield parameters such as flower intensity, fruit set, and fruit retention showed better performance for the test fungicide SSF-126 20% SC as against the control. Phytotoxicity of the test fungicide was tolerable. Based on results of this study therefore, it is a big advantage to apply SSF-126 20% SC fungicide on Carabao mango as it resulted to significantly higher yield, lesser incidence and lower disease severity of panicle or blossom blight, scab, anthracnose, and stem-end rot. It can be recommended as a good fungicide for control of major diseases of mango.


Key words: anthracnose, panicle or blossom blight, scab, and stem-end rot diseases, fungicide, pesticides, phytotoxicity
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2. BIO-EFFICACY EVALUATION OF ORGANICA ON THE INCIDENCE OF MAJOR DISEASES OF TISSUE-CULTURED CARDAVA BANANA AT CARMEN, COTABATO, PHILIPPINES

Naomi G. Tangonan & Ariel B. Alojado

Respectively, Faculty Researcher and Research Assistant, Plant Pathology Research Laboratory, Crops Research Division, Tel/Fax (064) 248 - 2610
University of Southern Mindanao Agricultural
Research Center (USMARC), USM,
Kabacan, Cotabato


Abstract

Organica (a Japanese product with Lactobacillus, Bacillus subtilis, black treacle, 83 kinds of minerals, and yeast) was tested for its bio-efficacy on the incidence of major diseases of tissue-cultured Cardava banana in a farmer’s field at Barangay General Luna, Carmen, Cotabato. Results showed that disease control showed highly significant difference among treatment means when compared to the untreated control. Disease incidence ranged from 7.06 to 32.01 against untreated control at 72.70. Disease severity (DS) was also highly significant among treatment means that ranged from 8.48 to 20.37 when compared to untreated control with a mean of 73.32. Postharvest diseases like fruit spot and fruit-end rot caused by Fusarium roseum showed significant difference among treatment means ranged from 2.24 to 3.32 and 1.51 to 4.03 when compared to untreated control with mean of 4.75 and 4.41, respectively. Similarly, infestation of aphids on tissue-cultured Cardava banana showed a highly significant difference when compared to untreated control with 93.56. Phytotoxicity of the test foliar fertilizer ranged from 0.71 to 1.99 and rated 1 or 1-5% in a rating scale of 0-9, meaning it had least or practically no toxicity on banana.
Organica (foliar fertilizer) applied on tissue-cultured Cardava banana thus resulted to reduced disease incidence and severity of leaf spot caused by Macrophoma musae, postharvest diseases as well as infestation of aphids (Pentalonia nigronervosa). Yield of Cardava banana ranged from 19.87 to 23.97 kg per fruit bunch.

Key words: aphids (Pentalonia nigronervosa), Fusarium roseum postharvest disease, Macrophoma musae leaf spot, organic foliar fertilizer, phytotoxicity
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3.IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL OF FIELD DISEASES OF DURIAN, JACKFRUIT, LANZONES, AND MARANG IN REGIONS XI AND XII, MINDANAO, PHILIPPINES

Naomi G. Tangonan and Judilyn P. Narcilla
Respectively, Study Leader and Research Assistant, Plant Pathology Research Laboratory, Crops Research Division, University of Southern Mindanao
Agricultural Research Center (USMARC), USM,
Kabacan, Cotabato Tel/Fax (064) 248-2610
Email:ngtangonan@gmail.com


Abstract

Field surveys of fruit crops (durian, jackfruit, lanzones, and marang) for incidence of field diseases – some are new records - were done in the municipalities of Bansalan Davao del Sur, Kidapawan, Makilala, and Kabacan North Cotabato. Phytopththora palmivora causing stem canker and Rhizoctonia solani causing leaf blight were found attacking durian trees. In jackfruit, Sclerotium rot of jackfruit and seedlings, two types of leafspots (Colletotrichum and Curvularia), pink disease caused by Corticium salmonicolor, and Choanephora fruitlet rot were noted. For lanzones, the following were noted: Fusarium leaf blight, sooty molds, and leafspot. Diseases in marang, on the other hand, were Thielaviopsis leafspot and algal spot caused by Cephaleuros virescens.

Two biocontrols, Trichoderma harzianum and Fungus X were found antagonistic against S. rolfsii and comparable to benomyl (chemical check). Fungicides found effective were captan, chlorothalonil, mancpzeb, copper hydroxide, and triadimefon.

Key words: Cephaleuros virescens, Colletotrichum sp., Corticium salmonicolor, Curvularia sp., Phytophthora palmivora, pink disease, Rhizoctonia solani
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4. IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL OF FIELD DISEASES OF SELECTED FIBER CROPS AT PICRI-USM, KABACAN, COTABATO, PHILIPPINES

Naomi G. Tangonan and Norkayda H. Abdulkadil

Respectively, Project Leader and Research Assistant, Tel/Fax (064) 248-2610 Email:ngtangonan@gmail.com, Philippines Industrial Crops
Research Institute (PICRI), University of Southern Mindanao,
Kabacan, Cotabato


Abstract

New records of prevailing field diseases of various selected fiber crops (abaca, maguey, pandan, pina, ramie, salago, and sanseviera) grown and maintained in the germplasm collections of the USM-based Philippine Industrial Crops Research Institute (PICRI) have been noted. After pathogenicity tests, the following were noted. Rhizoctonia blight of salago; Fusarium leafspot and bacterial leaf blight of sanseviera; Fusarium, Helminthosporium, and Macrophoma leafspots of abaca; shoot blight and sooty molds of maguey; Thielaviopsis leaf blight of ramie; algal spot, tip blight, leafspot, and rust of pandan; and leafspot of pina caused by Curvularia sp.

Three potential phytofungicides (devil weed, dumbcane, and pancit-pancitan) from several tested botanicals were found effective against some of the fungal pathogens. Likewise, six biocontrol fungi (Trichoderma sp., T. harzianum, T.pseudokoningii, T.viride, Penicillium sp., Rhizopus sp. showed antagonistic effect against R.solani in vitro. Five fungicides (benomyl, difenoconazole, mancozeb, metalaxyl, and tridemorph) applied as protectant and eradicant were found generally effective.

Key words: abaca, botanicals, fungicides, maguey, pandan, phytofungicides, pina, ramie, salago, and sanseviera
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5. DROUGHT PHYSIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF SELECTED RICE VARIETIES IN LAKE SEBU, SOUTH COTABATO, PHILIPPINES

Florence Lasalita- Zapico,1 Jammichaelben G. Miranda,1Michelle I. Pare,1 and Severo T. Bastian Jr.2

1Science Department, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Mindanao State University, Fatima, General Santos City, 9500 Philippines
2Molecular Biology Laboratory, University of the Philippines at Mindanao, Bago Oshiro, Tugbok District, 8000 Davao City Philippines
Email: fclasalita@yahoo.com


Abstract

Physiological and Molecular characterization of upland and lowland rice cultivars obtained from Lake Sebu was undertaken. For physiological characterization, the 16 rice cultivars were screened during two stages of growth namely: the germinative and seedling stage. Results showed that increasing PEG concentrations inhibited root/shoot emergence. It was also observed that upland cv Kalimumo showed best responses to drought stress during germinative stage. Plant height, Relative Water Content (RWC), and vigor rating were likewise inhibited by low moisture stress (LMS) regime imposed on the seedlings 14 days after sowing (DAS). LMS, on the other hand, had enhancing effects on leaf rolling and this became even more intensified with prolonged exposure to the drought stress. The RAPD technique proved effective in the identification of the 16 rice cultivars. However, the two phenograms constructed using maximum parsimony method and UPGMA proved inconclusive in terms of the estimation of phylogenetic relatedness of the rice cultivars under study. Of the two clustering algorithms, results of the parsimony method were more comparable to physiological data, though some inconsistencies were noted. Uncertainties associated with this study can be traced back to the use of a single RAPD primer in molecular characterization. A similar study using more primers is therefore recommended.

Key Words: Randomly Amplified polymorphic DNA, drought tolerance, UPGMA, parsimony
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6. VEGETABLE INTERCROPPING UNDER 'CATIGAN' DWARF (CATD) BEARING COCONUTS TECHNO DEMONSTRATION TRIAL AT PCA-DRC, DAVAO CITY, PHILIPPINES

Millicent I.Secretaria1 and Robert Evangelio2

1Phil. Coconut Authority-Davao Research Center, Bago Oshiro, Davao City
E-mail address: pcaasd@pldtdsl.net or milsecretaria@yahoo.com
2 East-West Seed Company, Inc. (EWSCI), Davao Office,
# 909 Vinzons St., Agdao, Davao City

Abstract

A techno demonstration trial on vegetable intercropping under bearing ‘Catigan’ dwarf (CATD) coconut palms was conducted from June to September, 2005 at the Philippine Coconut Authority – Davao Research Center (PCA-DRC) Experimental Station at Bago Oshiro, Davao City in collaboration with East-West Seed Company, Inc. (EWSCI) to demonstrate the feasibility and productivity of this intercropping practice to coconut clienteles and stakeholders.

Several kinds of vegetable such as tomato, eggplant, cucumber, squash, ampalaya and upland kangkong were planted in the interrows of bearing ‘CATD’ coconuts while watermelon was planted in an open area between two coconut planting areas. This techno demo trial showed some of the technologies introduced by the EWSCI for a productive vegetable farming under bearing coconuts. Some factors which affected the growth and yield of vegetables grown at PCA-DRC were discussed.

Key words: feasibility, productivity, coconut farming, vegetable growing
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7. LONG-TERM RESPONSES TO COCONUT LEAF PRUNING (CLP) OF RECOMMENDED COCONUT VARIETIES AND DURIAN INTERCROP UNDER DAVAO CONDITION, PHILIPPINES


Marianita N. Eroy,1 Rogaciano Z. Margate, 1 and Severino S. Magat2

1Phil. Coconut Authority-Davao Research Center, Bago Oshiro, Davao City
E-mail address: pcaasd@pldtdsl.net or manetteeroy@yahoo.com
2 PCA-Agricultural Research Management Dept., RDEBranch, Diliman, Quezon City
E-mail address: ssmagat@pacific.net.ph or sev_magat@yahoo.com


Abstract

A nine-year study on coconut + durian (Durio zebithinus) farming system was conducted in an inland-upland area in Davao City, Philippines from 1995-2004 to evaluate the responses of recommended coconut varieties: PCA 15-5 (CATD x BAOT) and PCA 15-8 (TACD x BAOT) and Bago Oshiro tall (BAOT) to coconut leaf pruning (CLP) at leaf rank # 19 and to determine the performance of the durian intercrop.

CLP decreased nut and copra yield of palms but increased copra recovery of nut. Reduction in nut and copra yield was lower in local hybrids ranging from 10-18% and 4-7% compared with BAOT with 31% and 28% nut and copra reduction, respectively. Copra recovery of nuts was improved by 5-9% in hybrids but not with BAOT. CLP did not influence the quality of oil and nutrition of palms.

Durian under CLP had better vegetative growth leading to more productive trees and resulting to early return to investment, high income and offsetting yield and income losses from coconut. Durian can be grown profitably even under closely spaced coconut (closer than 10m x 10 m) by adopting CLP. Shade provision for durian and CLP are unnecessary during the first two years of the crop thus deferring coconut yield losses. The use of local hybrids further increased farm productivity and profitability.

Key words: coconut/copra yield reduction, farm productivity, farming system, hybrids
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8. GENETIC EROSION AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF UPLAND RICE CULTIVARS IN LAKE SEBU, SOUTH COTABATO, PHILIPPINES


Tres Tinna B. Martin1, Ruby Jane S. Peña,1
and Florence Lasalita-Zapico2
Email: fclasalita@yahoo.com

1Graduating BS BIOLOGY students, Science Department, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Mindanao State University, Fatima, General Santos City, 9500 Philippines
2AssistantProfessor, Science Department, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Mindanao State University, Fatima, General Santos City, 9500 Philippines


Abstract

This study was undertaken to assess the varietal diversity of traditional rice cultivars in the upland areas of Lake Sebu, to collect rice germplasm for conservation purposes, and to determine the patterns of genetic erosion in farmers’ fields. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) tools and techniques (i.e. semi-structured interviews and questionnaires) were used to gather the needed information. The spatial distribution of these traditional cvs was also mapped out using DIVA-GIS. Of the 206 reported cvs in 1984, only 131 cvs could be named by the farmer respondents. Furthermore, 35 out of the 131 named cvs were no longer cultivated as of the time the interviews were conducted. The non-cultivation of the great majority of the cultivars was primarily due to farmers’ distinct preference for a few cultivars with desirable agronomic traits to the exclusion of all the rest. This present situation poses a threat to the upland rice resource base of Lake Sebu and this trend will go on unabated unless conservation measures are done to preserve the remaining population stands and to prevent further the loss of biodiversity in farmers’ fields.


Key words: biodiversity, conservation, farmers’ fields, rice germplasm, traditional rice cultivars, varietal diversity, PRA, DIVA-GIS
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9. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TRADITIONAL RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) CULTIVARS IN BARANGAY KIHAN, MALAPATAN, SARANGANI PROVINCE, PHILIPPINES

Jaime A. Namocatcat1, Florence L. Zapico2,
Lean Marx M. Degracia3, Jezrel B. Barnizo3
Email: fclasalita@yahoo.com

1Doctor of Philosophy, Professor in Biodiversity, Science Department, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Mindanao State University, General Santos City, 9500 Philippines
2 Assistant Professor, Science Department, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Mindanao State University, 9500 General Santos City, Email: fclasalita@yahoo.com
3Graduating Students, BS Biology, Science Department, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Mindanao State University, General Santos City, 9500 Philippines


Abstract

The extent of morphological variation and/or similarity within a set of 32 traditional upland rice cultivars of Barangay Kihan was assessed in situ using eight morpho-agronomic parameters. Three different clustering algorithms ( Centroid, Complete Linkage and Median) were used to generate dendrograms based on Squared Euclidean Distance. These three clustering methods yielded trees of similar topology, though slight inconsistencies were observed in terms of cluster composition. A remarkable observation wais the inclusion of cvs mlikat samlaka, ubo, azucena and buling in one cluster in all three trees implying their genetic similarities with each other and their genetic divergence from all the other cvs. Low variability was also observed among the cultivars within clusters. These inconclusive results are due to the influence of environmental conditions on the expression of quantitative morphological traits. Thus, a similar study using molecular marker technology is recommended.

Key words: cluster analysis method, dendrogram, genetic erosion, morphological classification, upland rice cultivars
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10. ENHANCING NATURE EDUCATION AMONG KIDS BY USING LEAF SKELETONS IN CREATIVE ARTS

Avilla V. Baluyot

University Researcher I, Institute of Biological Sciences
University of the Philippines Los Baños
College, Laguna, Email: iebuot@yahoo.com


Abstract

Venation pattern is a basic characteristic of plant species. Thus the parallel venation is a characteristic of monocotyledons, the netted or reticulate, of the dicotyledons and the dichotomous (forked-veined), for ferns and other groups of plants.

Leaf clearing is the best method to observe details of leaf venation. For morphologists and taxonomists, venation pattern is the key character in studying the comparative morphology of plants. For paleobotanists it is the diagnostic tool that will pave the way to more researches and discoveries, especially the evolution of plants from fossil records to the present generation.

We can use leaf venation in biodiversity conservation as well. We can enhance nature appreciation and biodiversity conservation among kids or children through leaf clearing exercises. While children enjoy the natural yet unique designs of each leaf, gradually they would value nature and biodiversity resources.

Key words: comparative morphology, fossils, leaf clearing, paleobotanists, leaf surface, taxonomists, venation pattern
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11. NASAL COLONIZATION DIVERSITY AND BACTERIAL DENSITY OF WASTE-PICKERS IN ILIGAN CITY DUMPSITE, PHILIPPINES

Leonell L. Quitos, Ermee S. Calumba, and Lucilyn D. Lahoylahoy

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics
Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City
Phone: (063) 221-4050 local 137. Fax: (063) 221-4058.
E-mail: leonell_730@yahoo.com


Abstract

Iligan City generates tons of general wastes daily and waste generation has been projected to increase exponentially each year along with its tourism and economic development. All collected wastes are thrown in an open, uncontrolled dumpsite in Barangay Santiago, where mounds of unsegregated garbage are situated. The improper disposal of these wastes also has serious effects to the environment and human health. The increase of waste generation consequently led to the increase of waste-picker population. Surveillance and monitoring of the nasal microbiota of 74 asymptomatic waste pickers of Iligan City was conducted to investigate the possible seasonal effects on the colonization rates (CFU/swab) and the nasal carriage of potentially pathogenic bacterial strains. There was no significant difference in the microbial colonization rates between the pediatric and adult populations (202 vs, 206) of waste pickers. However, there was an increase in the colonization rates of both juvenile and adult groups from dry to wet seasons (104 vs. >300 and 111 vs. >300, respectively) which may be attributed to the runoff of wastes and formation of leachates in dumpsites.

All isolated and identified bacterial strains, in which some are potentially pathogenic bacteria (PPB), are members of the human normal flora: Staphylococcus aureus (38%), Corynebacterium sp. (15%), Lactobacillus sp. (14%), Bacillus sp. (11%), Micrococcus sp. (9%), Mycobacterium sp. (9%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (5%) and Streptococcus sp. (4%). Although high colonization rate does not necessarily preclude infection, the recovery of PPBs among asymptomatic waste-pickers still poses a possible threat of infection or disease.

Key words: nasal microbiota, potentially pathogenic bacteria
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12. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TRICHOMES FROM SELECTED HERB SPECIES OF FAMILIES VERBENACEAE AND LAMIACEAE: TOOLS FOR TAXONOMIC CLASSIFICATION AND CONSERVATION

IAF Lambio1

1Instructor, Institute of Biological Sciences,
University of the Philippines Los Baños, College, Laguna 4033
Email: moncheri_ivy@yahoo.com


Abstract

Morphometric characteristics of organisms have been used as tools for taxonomic classification but have been limited to traits that seen with the unaided eye. With the onset of molecular biotechnology, taxonomy took a turn, as classification is now based on chemical compositions such as proteins and DNA. But aside from this, microscopy has also evolved to enhance what could be seen by the naked eye with the introduction of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Details seen through SEM can now be used as morphological markers to aid in classification and conservation of organisms. Trichomes, epidermal extensions, have long been used as a taxonomic character that set plant families such as the members of Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae apart from other plant families. Using SEM, trichomes for each plant species can now be studied in detail. Similarities of trichome features can then be used to further classify members of a group.

Key words: molecular biotechnology, morphological markers, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), conservation, taxonomic classification
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13. DNA SEXING AND GENETIC DIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINE EAGLES (PITHECOPHAGA JEFFERYI) IN CAPTIVITY AT THE PHILIPPINE EAGLE CENTER, MALAGOS, DAVAO CITY

S.T. Bastian Jr.,1 A. P. Lozada,1 J.C. Ibañez,2
T. Yamagata, 3 K. Shimada, 4 and T. Namikawa3

1 Department of Biological Sciences and Environmental Studies, College of Science and Mathematics, University of the Philippines in Mindanao, Bago Oshiro, Tugbok District, Davao City, Philippines; 2 Philippine Eagle Foundation, Ruby Street, Marfori Heights, Davao City, Philippines; 3Laboratory of Animal Genetics and 4Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Japan


Abstract

The gender of the Pithecophaga jefferyi is difficult to determine because of its sexual monomorphism. Morphometric analyses and behavioral clues were found effective to determine the gender of Philippine Eagles but can only be applied if the eagles reached sexual maturity. In this study, a Polymerase Chain Reaction amplification technique was used to allow gender determination of the eagles at any stage of development. Twenty-four individuals of Philippine Eagles of various ages (2 – 37 years old) in captivity at the Philippine Eagle Center were subjected to DNA sexing. Fractions of the sex-linked genes, CHD-W, and CHD-Z genes of each individual were amplified through PCR that gave 100% confirmation to the assigned genders of the eagles through morphometric analysis. Eleven were found to be females and 13 were found to be males. Female eagle is shown by the presence of two distinct bands (236bp and 214bp) while males showed only a single distinct band of 239bp. This showed that the PCR amplification of the CHD gene fractions designed for chicken was effective in determining the gender of the Philippine eagles. On the other hand, to determine the genetic diversity of the captive eagles, five RAPD primers (OPA20, OPB1, OPB12, OPC2, and OPC13) were used that generated 69 RAPD markers, with lengths varying from 9000 to 130bp. Primer OPB1 generated the largest band (8,976bp) from Freedom and Marikit, while OPB12 generated the smallest band (134bp) from Gloria Victoria, Freedom and Magiting. Banding patterns revealed by OPA20 showed a common band (441bp) among the offsprings of Jag and Ka Brianne except Macanudo and Mindanao. The same band pattern was also found common among the offsprings of Junior except Ellen Therese. OPB1 revealed a common band (587bp) in 23 of the individuals, excluding Gloria Victoria. OPB12 revealed three common bands (820, 573, and 422bp) in Kabayan, Pag-asa, and Arny, all of which are offspring of Junior. OPC2 revealed varying banding patterns among the offsprings of Jag and Ka Brianne except for one common band of 765bp. However, this band was not obscured in Mindanao and Mia. A 820bp band was found in all the offsprings of Junior and was also found in Pitha. The rest of the individuals, specifically Pag-asa, Girlie, Kabayan, and BGR shared three common bands with Ka Brianne. Variations were also observed among individuals coming from places in close proximity. RAPD analysis based on band sharing frequency (BSF) revealed that the 24 Philippine eagles were estimated as 0.4684, indicating low genetic variability compared with other avian species reported.

Key words: amplification, banding patterns, CHD gene, Philippine eagle, RAPD, genetic diversity, morphometric analysis, sexual monomorphism
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14. DETECTION OF VARIATIONS IN MICROSATELLITE LOCI AMONG SPECIES OF MEGABATS AND MICROBATS IN SOUTHERN MINDANAO, PHILIPPINES

S.T. Bastian Jr. ,1 R.N.C. Lasala,1 J.C. Ibañez,2
T.Yamagata,3 and T. Namikawa3

1Department of Biological Sciences and Environmental Studies, College of Science and Mathematics, University of the Philippines in Mindanao, Bago Oshiro, Tugbok District, Davao City; 2 Philippine Eagle Foundation, Inc., Ruby Street, Marfori Heights, Davao City, Philippines; 3Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Japan


Abstract

Variations in microsatellite loci among species of megabats and microbats from Mount Mahuson, Mount Hamiguitan, and Mount Sinaka in Southern Mindanao were detected using three microsatellite primers. A total of 56 polymorphic bands were generated from PCR amplification ranging from 75 to 1653bp. Primers 1, 2 and 3 produced clear and distinct bands in the PCR conditions tested. Primer 1 (specific primer) amplified a total of 28 alleles from all the samples with sizes ranging from 75 to 1191 bp. The largest sizes were found in P. minor, P. jagori, and in M. wetmorei which are all megabat species, whereas the smallest size were found in M. australis, M. schreibersi, K. whiteheadi, and K. pellucida, all microbat species. Primer 1 revealed variations of microsatellite loci in P. jagori, P. minor, and M. minimus collected from different localities in Southern Mindanao. Primer 2 amplified only a total of 10 alleles with sizes reaching 169 to 737bp. The largest bands were found in K. whiteheadi and K. pellucida while the smallest bands were found in H. fischeri and R. amplexicaudatus. Primer 3 revealed 20 alleles with sizes varying from 142 to 1653bp. The biggest bands were found in M. minimus and R. amplexicaudatus while the smallest were found in M. australis, M. schreibersi, M. cyclotis, E. spelea, and C. brachyotis. The samples examined exhibited great allelic diversity in terms of number of alleles and their sizes. Moreover, alleles found from the samples in Mt. Mahuson seemed to be continuous with the samples from Mt. Hamiguitan and Mt. Sinaka. The primers used in this study revealed that the bat samples in the areas are not genetically constricted species based on microsatellite alleles. Habitat protection and restoration are therefore necessary to reinforce and preserve the current status of its diversity.

Key words: alleles, allelic diversity, microsatellite loci, Mount Mahuson, Mount Hamiguitan, and Mount Sinaka in Southern Mindanao, polymorphic bands
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15. PHYLOGENETIC POSITIONS OF FIVE MICROBAT SPECIES IN MINDANAO, PHILIPPINES INFERRED FROM COMPLETE CYTOCHROME B GENE SEQUENCES

S.T. Bastian Jr.,1 RJ. A. Malcampo,1 J.C. Ibañez,2
T. Yamagata,3 and T. Namikawa3

1Department of Biological Sciences and Environmental Studies, College of Science and Mathematics, University of the Philippines in Mindanao, Bago Oshiro, Tugbok District, Davao City, Philippines; 2 Philippine Eagle Foundation, Ruby Street, Marfori Heights, Davao City, Philippines; 3Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Japan


Abstract

Phylogenetic positions of two Philippine endemic microbats, Rhinolophus rufus and Rhinolophus subrufus, and three other microbat species, Kerivoula pellucida, Miniopterus schreibersi, and Taphozous sp. were ascertained in the chiropteran taxa as well as their divergence time. Complete (1140 bp) mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence was used as a marker coupled with maximum likelihood, parsimony, and neighbor-joining as phylogeny inference methods. Together with other 23 microbats and six megabats whose sequences taken from DNA data bank, results consistently showed similar topologies of the taxa based on the three methods used. R. rufus and R. subrufus formed a monophyletic cluster with its congeneric species. In Rhinolophus cluster, R. rufus diverged 39.77±1.34MYA while the most recent diversification occurred between R. subrufus and R. ferrumequinum 7.02MYA. Having a genetic distance of 19.15 %, R. rufus and R. subrufus were confirmed as distinct species. The family Vespertilionidae was divided into two separate monophyletic clusters: first, the group with which K. pellucida branched out 33.84±3.24MYA and the second one, which consist only of all Miniopterus species with divergence time that date back 10.53±0.80MYA. Interestingly, the sample of M. schreibersi collected in Mindanao was found distinct from M. schreibersi species reported by Ruedi and Mayer (2003) with accession number AF376830, both came from two different collection sites. The large genetic distance of 14.78 % was observed between the two M. schreibersi. The M. schreibersi from Mindanao consistently clustered with M. fuliginosus which diverged 3.07MYA while the other M. schreibersi diverged 5.70MYA and clustered with M. fraterculus. Moreover, Taphozous sp. was found the closest relative of megabats that diverged 47.52±2.55 MYA. However, Taphozous sp. sample remained uncertain because it exceeds the morphometrics of T. melanopogon, the only species recorded in the Philippines.

Key words: cyt b, divergence time, mitochondrial cytochrome, monophyletic cluster,
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16. ACCLIMATIZING SUCKERS TO REDUCE MORTALITY OF SAGO PALM (METROXYLON SAGU ROTTB.) OUTSIDE ITS NATURAL HABITAT

Jeneylyne F. Colcol,1 Julie Mae T. Javier, and Lynn Esther E. Rallos

College of Science and Mathematics
University of the Philippines in Mindanao,
Bago Oshiro, Tugbok District, Davao City
1Corresponding Author: JF Colcol,
Email: jfc_peniel@yahoo.com,
Telefax (082)2930302


Abstract

Sago palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottb) is difficult to grow outside its natural environment. To reduce mortality of suckers when removed from marsh habitats, four acclimatization methods were tested. First, suckers without acclimatization in the wild, were immediately transplanted in garden soil in the greenhouse. Suckers were also transplanted in polyethylene bags with marsh soil then left in the marsh. Other suckers were rafted in bamboo poles then floated in the river (rafted). Lastly, suckers were partially cut from the rhizome, then fully excised (partially excised). After 2 months in the wild, suckers were then transported and transplanted in garden soil in the greenhouse, except for marsh-acclimatized plants (retained in marsh soil). Under waterlogged condition, the health status rating (HSR) of all suckers declined from 1st to 2nd month in the greenhouse but neither declined nor improved from 2nd to 3rd month. In the final observation, marsh soil-acclimatized and rafted suckers had the highest Also, in general, leaf color rating improved from the 1st to the 2nd month but remained the same from 2nd to 3rd month. In all acclimatization methods, the number of survivors never exceeded 50% after 3 months in the greenhouse, with marsh soil-acclimatized (33%) and rafted suckers (27%) having the highest percent survival. Control plants also responded most adversely with 100% death just after two months. Therefore, acclimatization in the wild prior to transplanting in the greenhouse may be necessary to reduce mortality with marsh soil acclimatization and rafting as recommended protocols.

Key words: Agusan del Sur marsh, marsh habitats, suckers, waterlogged condition
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17. FUMONISIN PRODUCTION BY A PHILIPPINE ISOLATE OF FUSARIUM MONILIFORME SHELDON AND SOME
OF ITS PHYTOTOXIC AND CYTOTOXIC EFFECTS1

Lynn Esther E. Rallos1 and Ida F. Dalmacio2

1 Assistant Professor, Department of Biological Science and Environmental Studies, College of Science and Mathematics, University of the Philippines in Mindanao, Bago Oshiro, Tugbok District, Davao City, Philippines. Email address for correspondence: lrallos@upmin.edu.ph, telephone #; (082)2930302.

2Associate Professor, Microbiology Division, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines.


Abstract

The intimate association between fumonisin-producing Fusaria spp. And corn poses a major health threat to animals, including humans, that consume this crop. In order to provide evidence of the presence of toxin-producing strains, a corn-isolate of Fusarium moniliforme was initially screened using a commercial ELISA-based detection kit to produce fumonisin up to 13.1ppm in cornmeal medium. The isolate was further found to produce fumonisin within 20 to 28oC in cornmeal medium incubated in the dark without shaking. Toxin extracts from the culture filtrate neither delayed nor reduced corn seed germination. L-929 mouse fibroblast cells were also insensitive to the extract. However, the extract significantly reduced the length of germinated seeds (length of radicle to plumule) and caused development of significantly large necrotic lesions on excised corn leaves.

Key words: corn, cornmeal medium, basal salts medium, fumonisin, Fusarium moniliforme, necrosis, excised leaf, mouse fibroblast, mycotoxin, seed germination, temperature, toxicity, thin layer chromatography, Veratox detection kit
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18. GROWTH RESPONSES OF ACCLIMATIZED SAGO PALM (METROXYLON SAGU ROTTB.) SUCKERS IN MARSH
AND BACTERIA-AMENDED SOILS

Marie Angelique Vernaiz,BS Biology
Lynn Esther E. Rallos, Adviser
Jeneylyne F. Colcol, Co-Adviser

College of Science and Mathematics
University of the Philippines in Mindanao
Bago Oshiro, Tugbok District, Davao City
Telephone no. (082)2930302
Email: lrallos@yahoo.com


Abstract

The response of 32 transplanted sago palm suckers collected from Agusan del Sur was determined on either marsh or garden soil amended with different microbes within a 12-week growth period after a two-month acclimatization in marsh soil. Growth response was assessed based on percentage survivability, rate of plant girth increase, rate of leaf emergence, leaf color rating, and overall health status. Treatments with either only rhizospheric soil microbes (in marsh soil obtained from sago palm forest) or combined rhizospheric and garden soil microbes exhibited the highest rate of leaf emergence (0.59 and 0.67 leaf/month respectively), color rating (“5” or green) and health status rating (“4” or 10% of leaves with insect bites/chlorosis/leaf spots/mechanical damage). Suckers grown with only rhizospheric microbes exhibited the highest percentage survival (100%) and plant girth increase (0.104cm/wk). On the other hand, suckers grown in garden soil singly inoculated with Azomonas, Beijerinckia or Azotobacter isolates responded poorly and did not differ significantly from those without microbial amendment. Moreover, the proportion of nitrogen-fixing bacteria (on Nitrogen-Free Combined C Medium) in the soil was highest for the treatment grown with combined rhizospheric and garden soil microbes. The above results revealed that (1) garden soil microbes alone are insufficient to cause good growth response; (2) mixed rhizospheric soil microbes are essential in the growth of acclimatized and transplanted sago palm suckers under greenhouse condition; (3) the presence of a high population of soil nitrogen-fixers may not necessarily promote the best growth.

Key words: amended soil, Azomonas, Azotobacter, Beijerinckia, growth response, Metroxylon sagu, nitrogen-fixers, rhizospheric microbes
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19. HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) OF DRINKING WATER FROM PIPED DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS IN ILIGAN CITY, PHILIPPINES

Peter D. Blanco and Lucilyn D. Lahoylahoy

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics
Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City
Phone: (063) 221-4050 local 137. Fax: (063) 221-4058.
E-mail: petdel2orb@yahoo.com


Abstract

Iligan City has one of the lowest potential sources of groundwater compared to its surface water potential in the Philippines. The major surface water sources are dams and lakes which are more vulnerable to human contamination than groundwater because of their direct exposure. Treatment procedures are employed to improve the aesthetic quality of drinking water and to prevent the proliferation of microorganisms. However, monitoring of “regrowth” of these microorganisms after treatment is imperative.

Drinking water samples were collected from Barangays Palao, San Miguel, and Hinaplanon from April to June 2005. Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) was conducted to assess the efficiency of the disinfection processes of the water distribution network and to identify heterotrophic bacteria in the drinking water using conventional biochemical tests. International standards for acceptable HPC for microbiologically safe drinking water vary from less than 100 to 500 cfu/ml. Fifty-nine of the samples exhibited values greater than 100 cfu/ml, and 35 of them exceeded 500 cfu/ml. Only 49 of the total collected water samples had less than 100 cfu/ml. HPC levels exceeding acceptable standards were obtained from San Miguel as the farthest from the water source, whereas Hinaplanon holds the lowest number of colony counts .

Bacterial species coming from the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, and Staphylococcus, as well as Escherichia coli and member of Enterobacteriaceae and other Gram-positive non-spore forming rods were isolated from the different sampling sites. Higher plate counts were observed from sampling sites farther away from the pump station.

Key words: drinking water, Gram-positive non-spore forming rods, microorganisms, surface water sources
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20. MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF THE HOME RANGE OF THE PHILIPPINE EAGLE

Norberto R. NavarreteJr.,1 Desi Dario R. Magnaye,2
and Jayson I. Ibañez3

1College of Science and Mathematics, University of the Philippines in Mindanao, Davao City, 2Davao Christian High School, Davao City
3Philippne Eagle Foundation, Davao City
Email: bertnav@yahoo.com


Abstract

This paper presents mathematical models for determining the home range of the Philippine eagle Pithecophaga jefferyi. One-hundred-four-telemetry points of a male adult eagle in Barangay Datu Salumay, Marilog District, Davao City were utilized to measure the eagle’s home range area. Three home range estimators, computed in different levels of resolution, were used: minimum convex polygon, bivariate normal home range model, and harmonic mean method. The 90% minimum convex polygon (3529 ha) produced the most reasonable home range estimate of the Philippine eagle. It eliminated a large portion of unwanted areas inside the polygon that the eagle did not actually visit or travel to. The bivariate normal home range model was found inappropriate since more than one center of activity was observed. The estimate produced a large elliptical home range area. Furthermore, all harmonic mean method estimates produced imprecise home range areas because of its dependence on the grid cell size chosen. On the other hand, the 50% harmonic mean method estimate on the core area size of the Philippine eagle overlaid with a 40 x 40 grid cell size (1329 ha) produced the smoothest region where most of the clustered points were found. This became the basis for selecting it as the core or the area most intensively used by the eagle.

Key words: Barangay Datu Salumay, Marilog District, Davao City, Pithecophaga jefferyi
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21 PHENOTYPIC VARIANTS OF CLONAL METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATES OF RESIDENTS IN PROXIMAL LOCATION TO ILIGAN CITY DUMP SITE, PHILIPPINES

Lucilyn D. Lahoylahoy, Ermee S. Calumba, and Leonell L. Quitos

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics
Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City
Phone: (063) 221-4050 local 137. Fax: (063) 221-4058. E-mail: luzlin@yahoo.com


Abstract

Open dump sites serve as reservoir for potentially pathogenic wastes where several infections can accidentally spread. Wastes that are sometimes dumped here usually range from domestic to hospital wastes of which the latter are the most probable source of staphylococcal infections that are, nowadays, difficult to treat and manage since the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains. The present study has detected and isolated bacterial strains that are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among healthy asymptomatic individuals that are in residential proximity to Iligan City dump site. This uncommon incidence of isolating MRSA strains in individuals with no established risk factors has facilitated a diverse epidemiologic problem since isolates of these types are usually associated with health-care settings. Thus there is a need to have a local study on the clonal MRSA isolates to determine the extent of the epidemiological increase of these MRSA subtypes. Twenty-eight MRSA isolates (14 from waste pickers and 14 from non-waste pickers) were screened for phenotypic susceptibilities to ampicillin, tetracycline, and clindamycin for antibiotic susceptibility assay would determine the distinct phenotypic pattern of resistance for clonal subtyping. The susceptibility to all three test agents have shown to be the most prevalent pattern (14% in waste pickers vs. 42% in non-waste pickers). Different patterns of susceptibility were evident in both populations (85% vs. 57%). The results showed that clonal dissemination of epidemic MRSA clones are now slowly emerging in healthy asymptomatic individuals without risk factors for MRSA acquisition. However, the determination of the susceptibility profiles of MRSA isolates to only three antibiotics probably underestimates the true virulence of the staphylococcal isolates.

Key words: antibiotic susceptibility, clonal MRSA, dumpsites, MRSA, waste-pickers,
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22. NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF SAGO (METROXYLON SAGU ROTTB.) IN ITS NATURAL HABITAT AND OF COCONUT (COCOS NUCIFERA L.) IN ADJOINING AREAS,
AGUSAN DEL SUR, PHILIPPINES

Rotsen Marie Claire G. Bayabos, BS Biology
Dr. Reynaldo G. Abad, Adviser
Prof. Marianita N. Eroy, Co-adviser

University of the Philippines in Mindanao
Bago Oshiro, Tugbok District, Davao City
Email: rabadup@yahoo.com


Abstract

The nutrient status of sago in its natural habitat and of coconut in the adjoining areas in Tagbayangbang and Mambalili in the municipalities of Bunawan and Libuac and in the municipality of Rosario, Agusan del Sur was determined. Leaf nutrient diagnosis was the method used in determining the nutritional status of sago and coconut palms, complemented by soil analysis. Water analysis was added for sago owing to the natural presence of stands of the palm in the waterlogged conditions. Soil analysis revealed nutrient deficiencies of major elements, particularly N, P, and Cl for coconut production, but the same soils appear to be suitable for sago basing from the verdant foliage and general vigor of the plant in its home environment. The high N and Cl content in sago leaves revealed by foliar diagnosis seem to suggest that the palm can synthesize N and Cl well under conditions not suitable for coconut or other crops. The result parallels with field observations showing the poor growth of coconut in contrast to the robust and healthy stands of sago. Result of the leaf nutrient analysis of coconut also provided vital information on soil fertility and conditions on dry areas where sago cultivation is expected to be expanded. While soil analysis showed low to moderate soil fertility and neutral to acidic conditions, these seemed not to pose hindrance to sago growth and development as the palm can thrive in areas with low levels of nutrient, as previously reported. The augmented water analysis that showed near neutral to neutral pH in the three sample sites did not reveal dramatic figures in the nutrient and physico-chemical analysis, supporting reports and general perception of the sago palm’s versatility in varied soil and wetland conditions.

Key words: coconut, critical nutrient levels, leaf analysis, soil analysis
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23. A CHECKLIST OF PHILIPPINE MALVACEAE, SENSU ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP (APG)

Allen Anthony P. Laraño and Inocencio E. Buot, Jr.

Institute of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College, Laguna, 4031 The Philippines


Abstract

Economically important plant species compose the family Malvaceae, sensu Angiosperm phylogeny group (APG). Iin 1998, Apg showed that DNA sequence data provide evidences that Malvaceae should actually include four families: Bombacaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae and Malvaceae. In the Philippines, the newly circumscribed Malvaceae is composed of 41 genera and 153 species. Many are food, medicinal, industrial, beverage, and landscape crops.

Key words: angiosperm, DNA sequence data, systematics, taxonomy.
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24. EDIBLE FERNS OF LOS BAÑOS, LAGUNA, PHILIPPINES

Charmaine A. Dimla, Katrina G. Magsombol, Rechelle M. Pine, and Inocencio E. Buot, Jr.

Institute of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College, Laguna, 4031 The Philippines
Email: iebuot@yahoo.com


Abstract

The ferns are one of the least explored species of vascular plants in the Philippines. However, with our country’s failing economy, it is a necessity to take a closer look at the potential of this group of plants which has been traditionally used by rural people as food. To date, 24 species has been reported by various published sources as edible. A survey in Los Baños (Laguna) markets, revealed bundles of fronds of a single species, pako (Diplazium esculentum) sold as a vegetable. Based on literatures though, other edible fern species abound in Los Baños mountain forests particularly on Mt. Makiling and in water bodies such as rivers and the Laguna de Bay. A total of 19 more species are available for exploration by the local residents. This is very relevant especially in the face of dwindling resources in our country.

Key words: food ferns, economic ferns, fronds, Pteridophytes, vascular plants
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25. SUSTAINING THE SOCIO CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT THROUGH THE ELIJER FESTIVAL OF LOS BAÑOS, LAGUNA, PHILIPPINES

Merites M. Buot

Assistant Professor
Dept. of Human Kinetics, CAS, UPLB
Email: meritesb@yahoo.com


Abstract

Elijer festival is a cultural practice in one of the baranggays of Los Baños, Laguna. Every May 15, a procession with street dancing is performed by the devotees of the patron saint, “San Isidro Labrador.” Men and women participate in the event but the most peculiar thing is men dress like the women do. Thus it appears that only women are dancing.

This study made use of the key informants and life histories. Through the years, Elijer festival somehow contributed in shaping the socio-cultural environment of the residents. There is a need to sustain this through the understanding of the real meaning of the festival and the true intent of the devotees.

Key words: cultural practice, patron saint
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26. ANALYSIS OF AVIFAUNA FOR THE CONSERVATION OF MOUNT MAHUSON, MOUNT SINAKA, AND BINOONGAN FOREST RESERVE, ARAKAN, COTABATO, PHILIPPINES

Fritzie B. Ates1, Tatiana Rose C. Abaño1, and Jayson C. Ibañez2

1University of the Philippines in Mindanao, Bago Oshiro, Tugbok District, Davao City
Email: tziek_24@yahoo.com
2Philippine Eagle Foundation, Inc


Abstract

Mist netting and point surveys were conducted to compare the bird species richness and composition of the forest fragments – Mount Mahuson, Mount Sinaka, and Binoongan Forest Reserve in Arakan, Cotabato Province, and to determine the bird species Mount Sinaka might have lost as a result of its isolation. Interviews were also conducted to determine the threats of human activities on bird species richness. Mount Mahuson and Mount Sinaka had the greatest community similarity (this sampling: CCj=0.32; pooled data: CCj=0.37) because of their high vegetation similarity. In contrast, Mount Mahuson and Binoongan had the least community similarity (this sampling: CCj=0.22; pooled data: CCj=0.27) perhaps because they are farther apart. The absence of dipterocarp trees in Binoongan might have also led to such difference in avifauna. Mount Sinaka obtained the highest species richness (this sampling: 82 species; pooled data: 117 species) because it has the most stable vegetation diversity whereas the forests of Mount Mahuson and Binoongan are still regenerating. Mount Mahuson obtained the highest endemism (pooled data: 59 species) because of its higher elevation, and the highest number of threatened species (this sampling: 11 species; pooled data: 19 species) probably because of the rescue effect of Mount Apo adjacent to it. It was also found that Mount Sinaka might have lost 31 bird species as a result of its isolation. Therefore, these findings justify the establishment of forest corridors.

Key words: community similarity, endemism, forest fragmentation, land-use history, species richness
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27. SHELL SHAPE CHANGES IN NINE SPECIES OF MARINE, FRESHWATER, AND LAND SNAILS USING SUPERIMPOSITION AND THIN-PLATE SPLINE ANALYSIS OF LANDMARKS IN DIGITIZED IMAGES OF SHELLS

Rizalyn T. Borra and Cesar G. Demayo

Department of Biological Sciences
College of Science and Mathematics
MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology
Iligan City, Email: c_gdemayo@yahoo.com


Abstract

Morphometrics involves the quantitative study of form. Form is intuitively understood that is consisting of size and shape which are never biologically independent but are instead inextricably interrelated. In this study continuous data was obtained to assess variations in the form of the shell of the snail. This was determined by employing geometric Morphometrics, a method used to obtain detailed shape information. In general, geometric morphometric methods provide greater power than the traditional methods because the position of the landmarks can be retained and can be graphically reconstructed. Meaning, it preserves geometry of object studied and it allows visualization of shape differences between specimens and between group means in specimen shape thus was used in the study. Shell shapes of a marine snail M. chrysostomum; freshwater snails namely P. polita, B. anglaris, P. pomacea, P. eregrine and an unknown species (designated as “unknown sp. E”) and three species of land snails namely A. fulica and two unknown species (designated unknowns b and c) were used since the shell of this group is either spherical or heliciform or elongate ovate having three to five sutures with wide oval or circular aperture. It has no siphonal canal and the outer lip of the aperture is not reflected. These nine species have twenty-one (21) homologous landmarks identified thus were the bases for their use in this study. Intraspecies and between species shape variations were examined using procrustes superimposition and thin-plate spline (TPS) analysis to examine local and global sources of variations in shapes. Results of procrustes superimposition showed the landmark points in all the snails fall on the same location and the general shape of the shell structure was determined. Distinct differences can now be determined and variations in the deformation between the species can be visually detected. Procrustes analysis was therefore an important means of shape comparison because it removes or eliminates the differences in rotation, translation and scaling of forms. After the landmark configurations were superimposed, residuals were modeled with the Thin-Plate Spline (TPS) transforming one coordinate system into another. The parameters of the TPS transformation were used to explore patterns of shape changes between objects. Shape changes as deformation within species of snail’s shell included in this group was made possible by fitting an interpolation function to the aligned landmark coordinates of each specimen against the reference configuration, so that all homologous landmarks coincide. Variations between species were observed as the shells vary in landmark points where local and global deformations have occurred. These can easily be observed from the graphical presentation of the changes in individual shapes.

Key words: deformation, landmark points, morphometric methods, residuals
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28. THIN-PLATE SPLINE ANALYSIS OF SEXUAL DIMORPHISM IN SHAPES OF MANDIBLES IN RATS

Roxan Eupeña and Cesar G. Demayo

Department of Biological Sciences
College of Science and Mathematics
MSU-Iligan Institue of Technology
Iligan City, Email: c_gdemayo@yahoo.com


Abstract

Thin plate spline (TPS) analysis is an interpolating function, which proves useful to represent shape change as deformation among landmarks. It allows illustrating the overall shape change in the transformation from the consensus shape to that of the particular specimen. The shape change can also be partitioned into two components. The homogenous transformations (stretching or compression) are described by the uniform, or affine, component of shape change. All the non-homogenous deformations, i.e. those occurring in a localized region of the object, are described by partial warps, which are the orthogonal shape variables ordered so that they represent differences from the largest down to the smallest scale. The rodents’ mandible is composed of several morphologically recognizable landmarks and has distinct developmental origins and it has long been used as a model for genetics, development and evolution of complex morphological structures. In this study, we used the mandible of rats in understanding sexual dimorphism in both size and shape using thin-plate spline analysis. A total of four species under two genus of rats and a mouse which served as outgroup were sampled. These include Mus musculus under Genus Mus and Rattus argitiventer, Rattus norvigicus and Rattus rattus under Genus Rattus. Rats were collected from ricefields, cogonal areas, camote fields, coconut groves, and within cities and towns particularly in the house and market to which they were commonly observed. The mandibles were scanned or digitized at lateral orientation both the left and the right side. In order to assess sexual dimorphism, digitization within species was separated according to sex. Specimens were laid at different orientations as described above and were digitized at a resolution of 1200 vertical and horizontal dpi. A resolution of 1200 dpi was maintained to eliminate the size-related digitizing error. The digitized images were then save as file and then subjected to a landmark acquisition to established x and y coordinates of the 15 homologous landmarks used in this study. Image analysis software was used in order to generate x and y coordinates. The coordinates taken were considered as the raw data, which were then subjected to TPS and multivariate statistical analyses. The results of the study showed that after removing the unequal positioning or shifting of landmarks and size differences of the mandible shapes by superimposition the generalized shape of the mandibles was obtained. The procrusted values were then subjected to thin plate analysis or TPS to visualize mandible shape variation within individuals of such species and were also applied to compare between species differences. Shape deformations between sexes within species vary indicating sexual dimorphism in shape changes. The genus mus which served as outgroup in this study showed complete differentiation from the genus rattus. Within the genus rattus, significant differentiation was observed although there were some overlaps after shape principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the procrustes-fitted data. This means that there were shape changes that were commonly observed in the group. Mus musculus showed expansions of the posterior grids associated by the landmarks 1 to 4, compressions of the 15-1 plane and downward diagonal bending of the tip incisor or the landmark 11. Those individuals in the genus Rattus exhibited an inward depression of the posterior region of the mandible, expansion of the grids along the plane 15-1 plane and compression of the landmarks 13 and 14. Shape variability observed within and among species of the rodents studied showed similarities, but also showed that they are not identical. This is consistent with shape changes in earlier studies of mandibular shape in other species of rodents.

Key words: component analysis, homologous landmarks, homogenous transformation, shape variability
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29. GEOMETRIC MORPHOMETRIC VARIATIONS BETWEEN THE MALE AND FEMALE SEXES OF A NEW SPECIES OF WHIP SPIDERS (CHARONTIDAE, AMBLYPIGI) COLLECTED FROM INITAO NATIONAL PARK, MISAMIS ORIENTAL, PHILIPPINES

Jenefer Godinez1 and Cesar G. Demayo2
1Philippine Science High School Tubod Campus, Lanao del Norte
2Department of Biological Sciences College of Science and Mathematics
MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology
Iligan City, Email: c_gdemayo@yahoo.com


Abstract

Between sex-differences was assessed among the sampled Amblypygids believed to be new species of the genus Charon using geometric Morphometric methods – procrustees fitting, thin-plate splines, Euclidean distance matrix analysis and eigenshape analysis. Twelve (12) landmarks in the dorsal carapace and 26 landmarks in the ventral prosoma were used to examine sexual dimorphism. Multivariate statistical analysis of the computed landmark data showed that females exhibited greater diversity in the shape of the dorsal carapace and on the ventral prosoma along the sternal area.

Key words: Amblypygids, sexual dimorphism
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30. THE APPLICATION OF LANDMARK-BASED METHOD OF ANALYSIS IN THE QUANTITATIVE DESCRIPTION AND DISCRIMINATION OF BUTTERFLY WINGS

Mark Anthony J. Torres, Ecel Tabaniag, and Cesar G. Demayo

Department of Biological Sciences
College of Science and Mathematics
Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology
Iligan City, Email: c_gdemayo@yahoo.com


Abstract

Studies examining and using pattern variation in morphological structures in butterflies for the identification and characterization of individuals and populations have been limited by the methods available for quantifying wing patterns objectively. In this study, differences in butterfly wing shape and sizes are demonstrated statistically using the landmark-based method of thin-plate splines, partial warp score analysis and Euclidean Distance Matrix algorithm (EDMA). When combined with multivariate statistical method of analysis such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Cluster Analysis and Discriminant Function Analysis, landmark- and distance-based methods offer the most powerful tool for testing and graphically displaying differences in organismal shape. A total of 61 individuals from 11 species of butterflies belonging to the Families Nymphalidae and Pieridae that are among the most common in Northern Mindanao were sampled. Sample sizes for each species were as follows: [Family Nymphalidae] Ideopsis juventa (n=3), Junonia hedonia ida (8), Mycalesis mineus philippina (6), Neptis cymela nitetus (3), Ypthima conjuncta conjuncta (2), Y. lisanda (17), [Pieridae] Catopsilia scylla cornelia (4), C. scylla asema (1), Eurema hecabe tamiathis (8), E. blanda vallivolaus (2) and E. alitha alitha (7). Cartesian coordinates of 32 landmark points, which included points of intersection of the major wing veins, were digitized using the ScionImage software. The raw coordinate data were Procrustes fitted to eliminate size and rotational translation. This procedure returned singular values that were used in the Thin-plate spline visualization of shape differences of the wings and in generating the means shapes for each species. PCA of the procrustes-fitted values enabled the identification of localized variations summarized as displacement vectors radiating from the different landmark points on the mean shape corresponding to the first principal component. Cluster analysis of the data showed minor introgressions among the different samples belonging to different species. On the other hand, DFA of the data matrix showed that some of the variations observed between the species were significant. Analysis of partial warp scores also identified affine and non-affine variations among species. On the other hand, distance-based analysis of the raw coordinate data using the EDMA procedure generated a constellation of interlandmark distances, which were used as morphometric variables and subjected to PCA, Cluster analysis, and DFA. Results showed significant size differences among the different species. Studies with other biological subjects have already shown that landmark- and distance-based approaches work well with shapes. This study has shown that these methods can reliably detect and quantify differences among several butterfly species. Also, the method of thin-plate splines can be used to describe the shapes of the wings characteristic for each species. Potential applications of this method in the area of systematics and evolutionary biology are considered.

Key words: distance-based analysis, interlandmark distances, morphological structures,
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31. ADULT ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD) AMONG TEENAGE STUDENTS OF MSU-IIT, ILIGAN CITY, PHILIPPINES

Cesar G. Demayo, Mark Anthony J. Torres, and Ianni Bea Garcia

Department of Biological Sciences
College of Science and Mathematics
MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology
Iligan City, Email: c_gdemayo@yahoo.com


Abstract

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was previously considered strictly a childhood condition, outgrown in adolescence, and of little consequence for adult mental health. Many people do not realize that ADHD affects adults as well as children; even some health professionals doubt the existence of adult ADHD. However, we now know that ADHD symptoms frequently persist in the adult lives of people who had ADHD when they were children. In this study, because it is not always practical, or possible, to obtain information from an informant such as a parent or employer, clinicians, we rely on the student’s own account of his or her current symptoms and the subjects’ recollection of childhood symptoms in making. We used the Wender-Utah Rating Scale developed by Dr. Paul Wender in 1995 for determining adult ADHD among the 739 students in six colleges of MSU-IIT. This rating scale is the most widely used scale in determining whether an adult individual has ADHD or possibly has ADHD. Of the 739 students, 509 or 68.87% were observed negative for ADHD behavior, 151 or 20.43% had the probably ADHD and 79 or 10.69% were observed positive. The result of this study is comparable to published reports that showed at least 10% of adult populations manifest this disorder. At present we extend our study among college students from other schools in Iligan City to have a clearer view as to what extent are the manifestations of this behavior among teenage students of today.

Key words: childhood condition, manifestations of this behavior, Wender-Utah Rating Scale
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32. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD) IN YOUNG SCHOOLCHILDREN AGES 3-8 IN ILIGAN CITY, PHILIPPINES

Cesar G. Demayo, Mark Anthony J. Torres, and Concepcion Apao

Department of Biological Sciences
College of Science and Mathematics
MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology
Iligan City, Email: c_gdemayo@yahoo.com


Abstract

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disability that usually affects children and is usually characterized by behavioral and learning disorders. Some of the characteristics that are commonly cited among the children with ADHD are hyperactivity, distractibility, and impulsivity. ADHD results in children finding it difficult to perform a task assigned to them and focus on some of the important aspects of conversations. We used the SNAP-IV Teacher and Parent Rating Scale to get the information needed from the child in selected schools from Iligan City. In this study however, we allowed only the teachers to fill-out the survey form based on his observations of the children under his/her class. The SNAP-IV Rating Scale consisting of 90 behavioral descriptions of the child is a revision of the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham (SNAP) Questionnaire (Swanson et al, 1983). We paid attention to four subtypes of ADHD’s in the survey - the two subsets of symptoms: inattention (ADHD-1) and hyperactivity/ impulsivity items (ADHD-H/Im), items that included from the DSM-IV criteria for Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and items from the Conners Index Questionnaire (Conners, 1968) where the items which loaded highest on the multiple factors of the Conners Questionnaire, represents a general index of childhood problems. Our preliminary results done on 251 schoolchildren ages 3-8 years old showed none of those surveyed have symptoms of ADHD based on the total 90 descriptors. However, when the four subtypes were assessed based on selected descriptors of SNAP-IV, results showed none had symptoms of ADHD-I (inattention), 2 females (0.8%) and 10 males (4%) showed ADHD-H/Im (inattention and impulsivity), 2 males (0.8%), and none for the females for ADHD-C. Thirteen (13) females (5.18%) and 32 males (12.75%) had the ODD descriptions. We are extending our study to other schools both private and public to have a clear glimpse of the extent of expressions of ADHD in different social classes of school children.

Key words: behavioral and learning disorders, developmental disability, distractibility, hyperactivity, impulsivity
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33. DEVIATIONS FROM BILATERAL SYMMETRY OF WING TRAITS IN SELECTED SPECIES OF BUTTERFLIES

Eratosthenes S. Polito, Cesar G. Demayo, and Mark Anthony J. Torres

Department of Biological Sciences
College of Science and Mathematics
MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology
Email: c_gdemayo@yahoo.com


Abstract

Developmental instabilities measured in terms of deviation for symmetry was investigated in five species of butterflies, L. xiphia, M. mineus, P. hedonia, Y. lisandra and Y motchulskyi. Selected sites of Siquijor Island and Iligan City were sampled and butterflies were examined based on morphometric traits of the wing venations. Asymmetry of an individual is measured as the right minus the left value of the bilaterally symmetrical trait. The frequency distribution histograms were evaluated to examine a variety of features like skewness, unimodal, and bimodal form of kurtosis. The mean samples were hypothesized against zero to test for developmental instability (DA) among wing venations. Test of association to determine size-dependence was carried out through Pearson Correlation test. The level of asymmetry was then portrayed using the five FA indices after determining the pattern of asymmetry among different wing veins traits. Based on the frequency distribution results revealed that vein traits in every place were deviating from the normality curve. It was found out that not a single character of the butterfly wing is beneficial in measuring level of directional asymmetry (DA). Correlation among different wing characters showed developmental independence among the wing traits.

Key words: directional asymmetry, kurtosis, Siquijor Island and Iligan City
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34. COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF FIVE RATES OF AZ41 AGAINST CROWN ROT DISEASE OF CAVENDISH BANANA

Ma. Louela S. Villarin and Naomi G. Tangonan

Respectively, former BSA major in Plant Pathology thesis student and Adviser, Dept of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, University of Southern Mindanao, Kabacan, Cotabato, Email: ngtangonan@gmail.com


Abstract

A study on the effects of five rates of AZ41 organic fertilizer against crown rot disease of Cavendish banana was conducted at the Department of Plant Pathology Laboratory, USM, Kabacan, Cotabato from June to September 2005.
Four fungal pathogens, namely: Colletrotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium moniliforme, Botryodiplodia theobromae, and Thielaviopsis paradoxa were identified as the causal pathogens of crown rot of banana.
Application of AZ41 at 32 ml/16 ml water and Rovral (standard fungicide) at 10 ml/Li water gave the lowest percentage infection and percent disease index which were significantly different from the rest of the treatments. These two treatments also gave the highest Visual Quality Rating at 14 days after treatment with a mean of 7.0 and 6.33, respectively.

Key words: Botryodiplodia theobromae, Colletrotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium moniliforme, and Thielaviopsis paradoxa
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35. FROM PAILIS TO PASUNGKÔ: NEGOTIATING THE PRESENT, ASCERTAINING THE FUTURE (INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION)

L. C. Sevidal Castro, Ph.D., Liwayway S. Viloria, Ph. D.,Johanna E. Hanasan, and Reymund T. Bago

Department of Sociology, College of Arts and Social Sciences
MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City
Email: cass-lsc@sulat.msuiit.edu.ph


Abstract

Similar to many indigenous peoples in the Philippines, the Subanun have lived with the vicissitudes of their biophysical environment for ages, moving through river systems, across hills and over mountains that punctuate the landscape of their ecosystem. Historically, they have nurtured this intricate coexistence with the biophysical environment that provides the resources from which they derive their sustenance, at the same time, limits their activities.

The Subanuns regard human beings as stewards of the vast resources in their surrounding. In the utilization of these resources, certain cultural prescriptions and proscriptions are observed. The Subanun Indigenous Knowledge System (IKS) has undergone transformations through time, as evidenced in the syncretic nature of their adaptive strategies (knowledge, techniques, beliefs, and practices). Such transformations are contexted in the particular circumstances – environmental changes, social pressures, market-driven economy and constraints imposed by law – impinging on their interactions with the biophysical environment and various stakeholders.

There are several elements of Subanun IKS that are conservational. These may synergize with modern technology-based approaches in various ways that, while assuming a pragmatism that is cognizant of the demands and pressures of the biophysical, socio-economic environment, are also capable of protecting the natural resource base of the environment.

The study benefits from a triangulation of information sources, as well as, of data-gathering techniques. The main tools are key informant (KI) interviews and testimonies, focus group discussion (FGD), documentary review, secondary data gathering, participant and non-participant observation.

The study sites are located in six communities in the Mt. Malindang Range in Misamis Occidental.

Key words: adaptive strategies, conservational elements, environmental changes, indigenous knowledge system (IKS),resource utilization
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36. A COMPARISON OF WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE HOSPITALS IN ILIGAN CITY, PHILIPPINES

Olive S. Anies, Maricris Gay P. Garcia, and Christine Cherry E. Solon

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics
MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City
Email: maricrisgay@yahoo.com,


Abstract

Increasing population results to more and more people using materials which are later thrown away as garbage. Aside from those generated at homes, industries, institutions or commercial establishments, there are also those generated as a result of activities pertaining to the improvement of human health such as diagnosis, treatment or immunization. Such wastes are called hospital or health care wastes. The waste management systems of one government hospital, Gregorio T. Lluch Memorial Hospital (GTLMH) and one private hospital Mindanao Sanitarium and Hospital (MSH) were examined. During the tours made to the two representative hospitals, the following details were noted: (1) availability of waste bins, (2) colors of bins, and (3) waste composition. The hospital personnel-in-charge were then interviewed. There is noticeable difference in the way the two hospitals manage their wastes. Although both practiced segregation of wastes using color-coded bins, they fall short of the DOH standards. In terms of sharp disposal, GTLMH placed theirs in a plastic container, disinfected and temporarily placed in asphalt drums at the back of the hospital whereas MSH, cut and melted their needles using a Needle Syringe Destroyer found in each nurse’s station. Both hospitals store their pathological wastes in a vault or septic tank, but treatment was done differently. Wastes from GTLMH and MSH were collected daily and transported to separate open dumps in Iligan City. Evidently, there is a need to upgrade their waste management practices to a safer extent as well as to reduce volume by proper segregation at source and 3Rs. This will consequently result to a healthier and cleaner environment.

Key words: hospital waste, pathological waste, waste bins, waste composition,
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37. REACTIONS OF FIVE DURIAN CULTIVARS TO PHYTOPHTHORA FRUIT ROT BY ARTIFICIAL INOCULATION UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS

Sitti Julyha B. Suib and Reynaldo G. Abad

UP in Mindanao, Bago Oshiro, Tugbok District, Davao City
Email: rabadup@yahoo.com


Abstract

Isolates of Phytophthora palmivora Butler obtained from rot-infected durian (Durio zibethinus L.) fruits were inoculated on healthy fruits of six durian cultivars (Alcon Fancy, Arancillo, Native, Puyat, Seri Kembangan Original, and Seri Kembangan F2). Inoculation was done by applying 1ml isolate suspensions on the mid-section on the rind of each fruit (10 per cultivar). Seri Kembangan F2 and Alcon Fancy showed to be the most susceptible to fruit rot in terms of percentage infection and lesion development. Puyat and Seri Kembangan Original had the least infection. In two other tests, two inoculation methods were tried, namely wounded (making a very tiny scratch on the surface in between the spines of the rind at the mid-portion of the fruit slightly exposing its inner epidermal tissues) and unwounded, prior to application of 1ml of the inoculum. This was done on durian fruits of 2 age-groups (young and full-grown) and on 2 entries (Seri Kembangan Original and Puyat) that manifested the least infection in the varietal test with a susceptible entry (Seri Kembangan F2) as check. In the age-group test, wounded fruits contracted infection earlier than unwounded fruits, regardless of age-group and younger fruits developed rot symptoms earlier than older fruits in the wounded inoculation group. On the test involving the two least infected cultivars and the most susceptible entry, all wounded fruits (except those that ripened) succumbed to fruit rot and none in the unwounded group. This strongly suggests that bruises or abrasions can serve as favorable avenues for infection, regardless of variety.

Key words: artificial inoculation, Alcon Fancy, Arancillo, Native, Puyat, Seri Kembangan Original, and Seri Kembangan F2 cultivars, resistance
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38. REACTIONS OF SEVEN UPLAND RICE VARIETIES AND LINES TO PREVAILING DISEASES, INSECT PESTS, AND WEED SPECIES IN ARAKAN, COTABATO, PHILIPPINES

Lorelyn Joy N. Turnos and Naomi G. Tangonan

Respectively, former MS Crop Protection student and Adviser/University Professor Portion of the 1st author’s MS thesis (Email: lorelynjoy@yahoo.com)
lorelynjoy@yahoo.comlorelynjoy@yahoo.com, University of Southern Mindanao, Kabacan, Cotabato


Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the resistance and susceptibility of seven upland rice varieties and lines (Dinorado, NSIC Rc-9, NSIC Rc-11, UPL Ri-5, IR74371-3-1-1, IR74371-54-1-1, PR23709-10) against various pest species (pathogens, insects, weeds) attacking the crop. It was conducted in ten barangays in the municipality of Arakan, Cotabato from August 2005 to February 2006.

The following pathogens were isolated from the infected parts of the plants: eight fungal pathogens (Aspergillus flavus, Cercospora oryzae, C. oryzae, Fusarium sp., Helminthosporium oryzae, Ustilago virens, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii), two bacterial pathogens (Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae). Six nematode species were also extracted from soil and root samples, namely: Aphelenchoides, Criconemoides, Helicotylenchus, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, and Tylenchorhynchus. Moreover, only rice grassy stunt virus was detected to cause viral disease on few plants. On the other hand, eight species of insect pests from orders Hemiptera and Orthoptera, and 24 weed species from 12 different families, were collected and gathered during the actual monitoring and observation in the trial sites.

Based on the data gathered, it was also found that the traditional Dinorado variety was more susceptible to disease infection and insect pest infestation than the modern varieties. However, recommended varieties when compared with modern lines may have different response in terms of the resistance or susceptibility of these crops depending on the species of pathogens and insect pests present in the field.

In terms of the location of the trial sites, higher pest occurrence and incidence of infection and infestation had been observed in barangays Kulaman Valley, Datu Mantangkil, and Kabalantian. This implies that environmental conditions prevailing in the area influenced the occurrence and incidence of the diseases and insect damages on the crops.

Key words: disease resistance, bacterial, fungal, and virus diseases, nematode diseases
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39. CORRELATION OF BIODIVERSITY TO THE SUSTAINABILITY OF SATOYAMA COMMUNITIES IN THE PHILIPPINES

Samuel R. Aragon, Marie Fe M. Sangalang,and Inocencio E. Buot

Plant Biodiversity Laboratory, Plant Biology Division
Institute of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Scinces
University of the Philippines at Los Baños
Email: samaragon_systematics@yahoo.com.ph

Abstract

A satoyama landscape is where nature and people possessing rich indigenous cultures are in perfect interaction to sustain working cultural landscape and contribute to high species diversity. Perfect interaction, however, entails the coexistence of a planned balanced mix of biodiversity with people contributing to equable climate, and water and food security. Visits to a number of communities with satoyama landscapes were made. Plant biodiversity in each community was assessed. While most have a mix of basic food and cash crops, many satoyama communities have fast growing but water-depleting species, e.g. the introduced Gmelina arborea. Indicator plants of high soil moisture and humidity are few. It is proposed that such water-depleting species as Gmelina arborea be gradually replaced by mesophytic plants that grow fast and likewise, elevate water table. This
will promote growth and sustenance of other plants thus, biodiversity will be enhanced at the same time, we and our grandchildren will enjoy sustained community livelihood.

Key words: biocultural landscape, Gmelina arborea, equable climate, food security
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40. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE BIOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF THREE PREDOMINANT MICROALGAE IN LAKE BATO, BATO, CAMARINES SUR,PHILIPPINES

Raul B. Magallon Jr. and Ida H. Revale

Bicol University, College of Science, Legazpi City
Email: idafhrev@yahoo.com


Abstract

This study is composed of three parts; part 1 is the identification and isolation of three (3) most prevalent microalgae in Lake Bato, part 2 is the qualitative inventory of metal contaminants of the lake, and part 3 is the ex-situ bioremediation of Lake Bato water samples.

The most commonly found microalgae in the lake were Volvox, Chlamydomonas, and Tetraspora. These microalgae occurred in Lake Bato where the lake has the following physico-chemical conditions: temperature level ranged from 270C-280C, the light penetration, 35-54 cm, dissolved oxygen (DO) of 9-13 mg/L, a pH of 6.9-8.15, and mean nitrate, phosphate, and potassium levels (ppm) of 18.565, 0.101, and 16.067, respectively. These water quality parameters qualified the water classification from AA-B to AA-C based on Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Administrative Order 34 series of 1990 (DAO 34) standards for bodies of water.

Assessment of the metal contaminants of Lake Bato using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) revealed detectable sodium, zinc, cadmium, and lead with mean amounts (ppm) of 36.0392, 0.1594, 0.0322, and 0.4103, respectively. Cadmium with a mean of 0.0322 exceeded the DAO standard three times more which is quite alarming and need prompt remedy. Same with lead having a value of 0.4103 which exceeded the standard value of 0.05.

The bioremediation experiment of this study made use of the microalgae-Volvox , Chlamydomonas, and Tetraspora as treatments. The results of the study showed that the amount of lead reduced by Chlamydomonas and Tetraspora was not significantly different from each other. On the other hand, there was no reduction in the lead when Volvox was used as shown by the 16.59% increase in the lead content. Both Chlamydomonas and Tetraspora gave 100% reduction in cadmium while Volvox attained 55.82% reduction only. Regardless of the metal contaminants, both algae namely: Chlamydomonas and Tetraspora were more effective than the Volvox in reducing the metal contaminants such as cadmium, zinc, and lead in decreasing order as indicated by the mean percentages of 96.92%, 85.87%, and 0.34%, respectively.

From the abovementioned conclusions, the researchers recommend proper quantitative assessment of the microalgae in the lake so that its natural bioremediating capacity for the lake metal contaminants would not be disrupted; further bioremediation screening be done for other naturally occurring algae in Lake Bato; and, the actual use of Chlamydomonas and Tetraspora as bioremediants for existing pollution involving the metal contaminants such as lead, cadmium, and zinc. In the event of an algal bloom, possible advantageous use of the algae should be considered.

Key words: Chlamydomonas, heavy metals, pollution, Tetraspora, Volvox
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41. ANTIGENOTOXICITY SCREENING OF COFFEE (COFFEA ARABICA LINN.)
AND CACAO (THEOBROMA CACAO LINN.)

Erdee Cristobal Cajurao and Ida H. Revale

Bicol University, College of Science, Legazpi City
Email: idafhrev@yahoo.com


Abstract

Antigenotoxic property of coffee and cacao extracts was tested against tetracycline in mouse bone marrow cells in vivo . Instant, roasted, and unroasted extracts of coffee and cacao were used as experimental treatments. Tetracycline in powder form was used as a genotoxic agent.

Twenty four (24) male Swiss albino mice with age of four to five weeks old were used as experimental animals. There were eight (8) treatments, six (6) of them were experimental, one was positive control, and the other one was negative control. The micronucleus test (Schmid, 1975) was used to study the formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes upon administration of tetracycline, a known genotoxin, and the inhibitory effect of the administration of varied extracts of coffee and cacao.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences among treatments at 5% level of significance. Results further showed that unroasted coffee possessed the highest antigenotoxic potential while instant coffee had the least among the coffee extracts. In contrary, instant cocoa had the highest antigenotoxic potential while unroasted cocoa had the least among the cacao extracts, but both coffee and cacao extracts were effective in significantly reducing the formation of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes of the tetracycline-treated albino mice, thus, reduced the tendency of tetracycline to alter the structure of DNA.

These results suggest that the potential antigenotoxic effect of coffee and cacao extracts may be attributed to the chemical components of coffee ( i.e. the alkaloid caffeine, phenolic polymers, polysaccharides, chlorogenic acids, and organic acids) and cacao (i.e. the alkaloid theobromine, oil of cacao, cacao butter, small quantities of caffeine (theine), starch, albuminous matter, and ash) which are present in the extracts that possibly inhibited the genotoxic effect of tetracycline to DNA formation.

This study recommends conducting clinical studies on potential antigenotoxic property of coffee and cocoa on human as experimental unit to attest its clinical effects and/or possible pharmacological value or conduct a confirmatory study on the antigenotoxic potential of coffee and cacao using other genotoxicity/cytotoxicity tests.

Key words: pharmacological value, polychromatic erythrocytes, tetracycline
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42. Micronucleus assay of three ginger varieties luyang-puti (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), luyang-dilaw (Curcuma longa), luyang-pula (Alpinia purpurata Vieill.) on male albino mice

Carmi A. Bracino and Ida H. Revale

Legazpi City Bicol University, College of Science, Legazpi City Email: idafhrev@yahoo.com


Abstract

The antigenotoxic potential of ginger varieties were evaluated in this study, which specifically compared its effect at different concentrations on male albino mice. Complete Randomized Design (CRD) was used, with eight treatments: T 0 (distilled water), T1 (50% luyang-puti rhizome extract), T2 (100% luyang-puti rhizome extract), T3 (50% luyang-dilaw rhizome extract), T4 (100% luyang-dilaw rhizome extract), T 5 (50% luyang-pula rhizome extract), T6 (100% luyang-pula rhizome extract), and T7 (tetracycline), with five replicates and one mouse per replicate. Experimental animals of T 1 to T7 were tetracycline-induced with dosage of 2000 mg/kg body weight. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was the statistical tool used in the study.

Three to five weeks old male Swiss albino mice were the experimental units of the study. The micronucleus test was employed to assess the occurrence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCEs), at the dosage of 2000mg/kg body weight. Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) showed that pure extract of luyang-pula attained the lowest average MPCEs count, which differed significantly from the other treatments. Results also indicated that pure extract of any variety of ginger had significantly lower MPCEs than 50% ginger rhizome extract. Dunnett's t-test revealed that mice treated with 50% ginger extract of any variety obtained significantly lower MPCE count than tetracycline-induced mice.

Results of the study showed the reduction on the MPCEs count on treatments using any varieties of ginger rhizome extracts at varying concentrations in bone marrow cells of male albino mice. Luyang-pula rhizome extract and 50% luyang-dilaw extract exhibited the greatest potential antigenotoxic activity. This could be attributed due to the presence of several amino acids contained in the ginger rhizomes.

The study recommends the wide use of ginger as herbal medicine, in addition to its culinary importance. The researchers also recommend a confirmatory study on the antigenotoxicity of ginger rhizome extract using other tests and an additional treatment of ginger extract – untreated with tetracycline, to gain further information on the properties of different ginger varieties.

Key words: antigenotoxic potential, ginger rhizome extracts, polychromatic erythrocytes
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43. EFFECT OF CLIMATE AND ELEVATION ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF PHILIPPINE GRAMMATOPHYLUM

Samuel R. Aragon

BS Biology, Institute of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, UP Los Banos, College, Laguna
Email: samaragon_systematics@yahoo.com.ph


Abstract

Grammatophylum is an epiphytic orchid genus that includes three endemic and three indigenous species in the Philippines. This possesses long inflorescence (1-1.5 m) of up to 160 variously colored flowers. Collections and records on distribution of this genus in the Philippines and the factors affecting its distribution were analyzed. Grammatophylum has Malesian and Pacific ditribution. Restricted in Western Philippines with Climate types I and III are endemic species like Grammatophylum martae, and Grammatophylum measuresianum. Grammatophylum multiflorum, which is endemic to Albay, and Grammatophylum stapeliiflorum is restricted in Eastern Philippines with Climate Type II. Other Grammatophylum species like Grammatophylum speciosum and Grammatophylum scriptum var. scriptum thrive in all climate types (Type I, II, III, and IV). As to elevation, Grammatophylum species are generally found from 0 - 300 masl and some extending up to 500 masl. Knowing the factors that limit distribution, this study could formulate measures for proper conservation of Grammatophylum and other orchids with similar distributional requirements.

Keywords: climate and elevation, distribution conservation, epiphytic orchid, indigenous species
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44. HEAVY METAL ANAYSIS OF PLANTS AND SOILS IN MINE TAILINGS OF VICTORIA I, MANKAYAN, BENGUET PROVINCE, PHILIPPINES

Jerwin R. Undan

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences,Central Luzon State University


Abstract

Heavy metals of plants and soils within Lepanto Consolidated Mining Corporation in (Victoria I) Mankayan, Benguet Province were determined. Plant samples were collected by plotting six quadrats with an area of 10 x 12 m 2 while composite soil samples from five sub- samples were collected in each quadrat using criss cross sampling technique to determine the amount of heavy metals in the study site.

The heavy metals extracted from the soil in the mine tailing were copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Concentration (ppm) of Cu, Pb, and Zn were 63.395, 11.040, and 14.094, respectively. These values were significantly higher than Ni and Cd which were only 0.526 ppm and 0.353 ppm, respectively. In general, heavy metal concentration in the area was below the standard heavy metal concentration in mine tailing.

Fourteen (14) plant species were identified in the area while one (1) was unidentified. The identified species were Eleusine indica L., Amaranthus spinosus L., Alternanthera sessilis L., Portulaca oleracea L., Fimbristylis meliacea (L.) Vahl, Mikania cordata (Burm. f.) B. L. Robins, Polygonum barbatum L., Achyranthes aspera L., Blumea sp., Cyperus alternifolius L., Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore, Cyperus compactus Retz., Desmodium sp., and Muntingia calabura L.

A. spinosus had almost all the metals extracted in large amount most particularly Pb. Other plant species with high concentration of Pb were A. sessilis, Desmodium sp. P. oleracea, and A. aspera. High concentration of Zn was found in E. indica, M. cordata, C. compactus, F. meliacea, and A. spinosus. Moreover, Cd found in small amount in soil was high in the following plant species: C. crepidioides, P. oleracea, A. sessilis, and C. alternifolius. Ni was found high only in A. spinosus and Blumea sp. but trace amounts in Desmodium sp. and F. meliacea.

A. spinosus and P. oleracea were positive for Cu at high concentration. Root systems of these plants showed higher root to shoot ratios than other plants found in the area. This indicates high translocation of metals to the shoot in these plants. These species also play an important role in the phytostabilization of metals, and in reducing leaching and run-off. Also, through these species, metals may be transformed to less toxic forms.

Key words: root to shoot ratios, toxic forms, translocation of metals
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45. DISTRIBUTION OF FROGS IN DIFFERENT HABITATS ON MOUNT KALATUNGAN RANGE, BUKIDNON, MINDANAO, PHILIPPINES

Geric O. Entia and Dennis A. Warguez

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City
Phone: (063) 221-4050 local 137. Fax: (063) 221-4058.
E-mail: geric3310@yahoo.com


Abstract

This study was conducted to acquire information on the frog species found in different habitats of Mt. Kalatungan Range , Bukidnon. It specifically delved into assessing the different habitats of the said area, identifying the frogs up to the species level, associating them with different microhabitat types, and also identifying the possible local threats that could affect them.

Eight different study sites were identified having different habitat types when sampling was done on May 21-27, 2005 starting at an elevation of 1,600 to 2,178 masl. Within these study sites, collection of frogs was done using Visual Encounter Survey. Physico-chemical factors were also determined.

Eleven (11) species of frogs belonging to four families (Bufonidae, Megophryidae, Ranidae, Rhacophoridae) were identified of which nine ( 81.82%) are endemic. These endemics consisted of Ansonia mcgregori , Ansonia muelleri , Limnonectes magnus, Megophrys stejnegeri, Philautus acutirostris , Philautus poecilus, Philautus surrufus, Philautus worcesteri, and Platymantis rabori while Pelophryne brevipes and Rhacophorus bimaculatus comprise the non-endemics.

Nine (81.82%) of the frog species collected are threatened. All the endemic species except Limnonectes magnus and the non-endemic Rhacophorus bimaculatus belong to this status.

Study Site C (Undisturbed Primary Lower Montane Forest) had the most number of endemic and threatened species. All microhabitat types were present of which Type IV (ground or substrate level) was mostly occupied. Frogs in the area specifically Limnonectes magnus serve as source of food and are threatened by the conversion of the forest into agricultural area and kaingin farming observed in the lower elevation.

Keywords: biodiversity, threats, frog species, microhabitat
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46. CONTROL OF ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE (MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA CHIT.) ON PECHAY AS INFLUENCED BY DIFFERENT LEVELS OF GOAT MANURE AND PLANT EXTRACTS

Christopher A. Datoy and Jaime C. Silvestre

Respectively, former BSA (Plant Pathology thesis student) and Professor VI/Adviser, Dept. of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, University of Southern Mindanao, Kabacan, Cotabato


Abstract

This study was conducted to screen the best plant extracts against root-knot nematode and to determine the effective rate of goat manure in controlling Meloidogyne incognita Chit. This was conducted at the Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, USM, Kabacan, Cotabato from January to February 2006.

Pechay plants applied with 150 g of goat manure and Carbofuran gave the lowest severity infection of root-knot caused by M. incognita which was significantly different from the rest of the treatments. These two treatments gave the lowest galled roots of 15.9 g and 17.6 g, respectively.

Treating pechay with 150 g of goat manure was as effective as Carbofuran in reducing severity of root-knot. Furthermore, neem tree and marigold extracts were also effective in reducing severity infection and weight of galled roots. Finally, application of goat manure from 100 to 150g increased the weight of pechay both when treated with neem tree and marigold extracts.

Key words: animal manure, neem tree and marigold extracts
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47. EVALUATION OF SEVEN LEVELS OF COFFEE WASTES AS ORGANIC NEMATICIDES AGAINST MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA CHIT. CAUSING ROOT-KNOT OF TOMATO

Irene B. Jeroso and Jaime C. Silvestre

Respectively, former BSA (Plant Pathology thesis student) and Professor VI/Adviser, Dept. of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, University of Southern Mindanao, Kabacan, Cotabato


Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of seven levels of coffee waste on the control of root-knot nematode ( Meloidogyne incognita Chit) in tomato. This was conducted at the Department of Plant Pathology, CA, USM, Kabacan, Cotabato from September 2005 to January 2006.

Seven levels of coffee wastes (mixture of pulp and shell) of about six month old after milling, significantly reduced the severity infection and increased fruit yield of tomato.

Tomato plants treated with 200, 600, 800, 1000, and 1,200 g/pot of coffee wastes including 14-14-14 (inorganic fertilizer check) significantly lowered the nematode population and were comparable to Carbofuran (chemical check ) and 1,400 g/pot of coffee wastes.

Plants applied with 1000 and 1,200 g/pot coffee wastes increased yield of tomato comparable to 14-14-14 (inorganic fertilizer check).

Hence, 1000 g/pot of coffee wastes as soil amendment is recommended to reduce nematode population, severity infection, and increase fruit yield of tomato.

Key words: agricultural wastes, nematode population
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48. PHENOTYPIC DIVERSITY OF FROG SPECIES SAMPLED FROM MT. SINAKA (COTABATO) AND MT. HAMIGUITAN (DAVAO ORIENTAL), PHILIPPINES BASED ON SELECT MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS

Elsa May Delima1, Fritzie Ates2, & Jayson Ibañez1

1Philippine Eagle Foundation, Val Learning Village, Ruby Street, Marfori Heights,
Davao City
2Department of Biological Sciences and Environmental Studies, College of Science and Mathematics, University of the Philippines in Mindanao, Bago Oshiro, Tugbok District, Davao City

Abstract

Phenotypic diversity of eleven anuran species sampled from two differing mountain ranges is presented. Forty-one individuals classified under four families of Philippine anurans were compared. Twenty morphological traits were examined and were used as basis for comparison and clustering analysis. We inspected all of the samples of the pre-selected morphological characters and ran the data for clustering using bootstrapping and parsimony. Results revealed prominent differences in the morphological features of each species and even among individuals of the same species. Some characters were solely observed in a single species (i.e. dermal projections in M. stejnegeri, pair of dark ocelli on back near groin for K. pleurostigma and four lines on the dorsum for P. lecuomystax) while other traits were shared among the species in study. Differing dorsal colors and patterns were also seen among the samples. The clustering analysis also revealed the differences among the species in study as the divergence was quite varied. These showed that Philippine anurans exhibit phenotypic diversity as shown in differences of even select morphological features. In addition, these morphological traits play key role in species identification and taxonomic classification. One can infer that from these samples, Philippine anuran is diverse.

Key words: anurans, traits, clustering analysis, morphology
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49. ELLIPTIC FOURIER ANALYSIS OF SHAPE OF AGLAONEMA LEAVES

Kene Padayhag, Mark Anthony J. Torres, & Cesar G. Demayo

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics
Msu-Iligan Institute Of Technology, Iligan City
Email: c_gdemayo@yahoo.com


Abstract

Patterns of variation of the leaf outlines of ten closely related Aglaonema species was investigated using Elliptic Fourier Analyses (EFA), eight of which are hybrids. A total of sixty-six (66) outline points were collected from around the leaf outlines. EFA of these outline coordinates returned a total of 40 coefficients that were used as morphometric variables in several multivariate methods of statistical analyses. Results of the analyses showed no clear-cut distinction among the different species included in this study as revealed be the scatter plot and dendrogram produced using two ordination methods-suggesting a high degree of similarity among the species. PCA of the outline coordinates confirmed the existence of directional asymmetry with regards to the direction of the leaf apex among all ten species. This result suggests a common genetic architecture that confers directional asymmetry among the ten closely related Aglaonema species.

Key words: dendrogram, genetic architecture, leaf apex, leaf outlines
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50. GEOMETRIC MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE OF THE TRUSS NETWORK IN SEVERAL SPECIES OF BIVALVES

Romme Ray Sullano, Mark Anthony J. Torres, & Cesar G. Demayo

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics
MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City Email: c_gdemayo@yahoo.com


Abstract

Variations in shape of the area formed between the anterior and posterior muscle scar, umbo, and ligament in the valves and the distances between them were assessed based on the landmark data, which were subjected to various geometric morphometric analyses. A total of 95 samples of bivalves were collected composed of G. melanaegis (n=22), G. tumidum (n=10), A. squamosa (n=24), C. orbicularis (n=16), and Curbicularia sp. (n=23) which were subjected to geometric morphometric and statistical analyses. Procrustes fitting of the landmark points allowed for the comparison of truss network of the bivalve, eliminating size and rotational translation. Thin-plate spline grids (TPS) were used to summarize the shapes of the biological structures. Partial warp analysis (PA) was used to identify the position of specific landmarks that vary considerably among taxa. Principal Component (PCA) Discriminant Function analysis (DA) were used to confirm or reject the hypothesis that the shape of the area defined by the anterior and posterior adductor muscle scars, umbo, and ligament as defined by the landmark points could be used to discriminate the species of bivalves used in this study and the patterns of size differences across all species were determined by comparing the interlandmark distances between the landmark points generated using Euclidean Distance Matrix Algorithm (EDMA). The result of this study clearly implies that the shape of the area formed between the anterior and posterior muscle scar, umbo, and ligament in the valves and the distances between them could be used as a taxonomic character in the classification of bivalves and indicates the usefulness of the various geometric morphometric methods in shape differentiation and variations in selected species of bivalves.

Key words: muscle scar, umbo, and ligament in the valves, shapes of the biological structures
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51. GEOMETRIC MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSES OF SKULL SHAPE VARIATIONS IN SELECTED FROGS AND TOADS

Joseph Carl J. Balais, Mark Anthony J. Torres, & Cesar G. Demayo

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics
MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City Email: c_gdemayo@yahoo.com


Abstract

Variation in shape is a common phenomenon in the natural world. Although most research had focused on variation in size, examination of differences in shape can provide insight into which structures have undergone dramatic shape changes. Shape variations between and among frogs and toads were assessed based on the landmark data, which were subjected to various geometric morphometric analysis. Specific landmarks that significantly contribute to shape variation were identified. Landmarks were taken from images of the dorsal orientation of the skull of B. marinus, K. juncta, P. leucomystax, and R. signata which were subjected to geometric morphometric analyses. Results of the landmark data showed significant variations between and among frogs and toads based on the results of principal component (PCA), thin-plate spline (TPS), relative warp (RW), partial warp (PW), cluster (CA), and Discriminant function analyses.

Key words: B. marinus, K. juncta, P. leucomystax, and R. signata
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52. GEOMETRIC MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSES OF SEXUAL DIMORPHISM IN SELECTED SPECIES OF SARDINELLA

Jay B. Mag-usara, Mark Anthony J. Torres, & Cesar G. Demayo,

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics
MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City Email: c_gdemayo@yahoo.com


Abstract

Landmark-based analysis of the fish truss network in three species of Sardinella was performed to identify sexually dimorphic features. A total of ten landmarks that are distributed along the length of the fishes were identified. Differences in the shapes of the two sexes were analyzed over the procrustes-fitted data using thin-plate spline grids, relative warps, and partial warp scores. Sexual size dimorphism was also assessed using Euclidean distance matrix algorithm. Multivariate methods of statistical analyses were also performed to supplement the different analyses. Results showed that only a few landmarks were sexually dimorphic. These are the landmarks associated with the caudal fin, dorsal fin, and the snout. Also, result of the EDMA analyses revealed sexual size dimorphism among the three species. This result is consistent with the results of other studies arguing for ecological divergence between the two sexes.

Key words: ecological divergence, fish truss network
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53. SEXUAL DIMORPHISM WITHIN AND BETWEEN SELECTED SPECIES OF BEES AND WASPS

Kristelle Tippi B. Maglinte2, Mark Anthony J. Torres,3
& Cesar G. Demayo4

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics
MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City Email: c_gdemayo@yahoo.com


Abstract

Interspecific comparison of patterns of sexual dimorphism and wing shape variation in two bees and one wasp, namely Apis cerana, Bombus empatiens. and Polistes sp., was performed through landmark-based analyses on 24 forewing and ten hind wing landmarks representing homologous points in both sexes and species. Procrustes fitting of the landmark points allowed for the comparison of wing shapes only, eliminating size and rotational translation. Thin-plate spline grids (TPS) were constructed to summarize and compare the mean shapes of the wings between the sexes per species. Partial warp scores were calculated and plotted on a scatter plot to identify specific sets of landmarks that vary between the sexes. Patterns of sexual size dimorphism across all species were determined by comparing the interlandmark distances between the landmark points generated using Euclidean Distance Matrix Algorithm. Multivariate methods of statistical analysis were also performed so as to summarize the information contained in the data. Results identified the same specific landmark points on the hind wing that contributes to variation of the wing but were not sexually dimorphic in the two species of bees. These includes the intersection between the coastal vein and the marginal vein; end of the second discoidal cell on the anal vein; intersection between the median and cubital vein of the median cell; intersection between the discoidal vein of the first discoidal cell and the transverse median of the second discoidal cell. Also, sexual size dimorphism was not evident in the two species of bees and one wasp. Conserved genetic factors may have contributed to these similar non-sexually dimorphic features, resulting in stronger phenotypic convergence between the two bees species and wasp species.

Key words: interlandmark distances, phenotypic convergence, Procrustes fitting
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54. SEXUAL DIMORPHISM IN SELECTED SPECIES OF DIPTERANS

Angelita S. Cuajao, Mark Anthony J. Torres, & Cesar G. Demayo

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics
MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City Email: c_gdemayo@yahoo.com


Abstract

Shape variations within Diptera flies were assessed based on the landmark data, which were subjected to various geometric morphometric analyses. Specific landmark variables that contribute to the shape variation of the flies were determined. There were 89 samples of flies, 66 belonging to Musca domestica, 16 belonging to Calliphora sp., and 7 belonging to Tabanus sp., which were subjected to geometric morphometric analyses. Results of the landmark data showed significant variations between sexes of the three species. Based on the results of principal component analysis (PCA), partial warps (PW), cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (DA), and Euclidean distance matrix analyses (EDMA), there is an absence of sexual dimorphism based on size and shapes.

Key words: landmark variables, morphometric analyses, shape variations
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55. INDIGENOUS SOCIO-CULTURAL SYSTEMS IN RELATION TO KARAO RICE-BASED ECOSYSTEM RESOURCE UTILIZATION AT BOKOD, BENGUET, PHILIPPINES

Amie F. Ayochok, Julie Ann R. Banwagen, Abner O. Lawangen,Brendo A. Ngalatan, Marites G. Santos, & Romeo A. Gomez Jr., PhD

Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet
Email:franky2mae2005@yahoo.com or romeochiba@yahoo.com


Abstract

Indigenous communities existed with the application of their traditional practices and knowledge. Activities of this group of people are being abided by traditional laws, which are established by the consensus of the community and it is a product of the long observations and adaptations. These traditional laws involved several socio-cultural systems, which are observed relevant to the existence of these people. It is very imperative in the conservation of resources as well as in the preservation of cultural heritage and identity. In the Karao community, these indigenous socio-cultural systems are seen to have a direct and or indirect relationship to the sustainability of their ecosystem. In resource utilization, these socio-cultural systems provide strategies on how to maintain the equitable allocation of resources as well as promote resource conservation, protection, and rehabilitation.

Key words: cultural heritage and identity, resource utilization, socio-cultural systems, traditional practices
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56. DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF REPTILES IN THE AGRICULTURAL AREA AND LOWER MONTANE FOREST OF MOUNT KALATUNGAN RANGE, BUKIDNON, MINDANAO, PHILIPPINES

Dexter Dave M. Tariman and Dennis A. Warguez

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics
Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City
Phone: (063) 221-4050 local 137.
Fax: (063) 221-4058. E-mail: dektarz41@yahoo.com


Abstract

Sampling was done last May 16-31 2005 in the agricultural area and lower montane forests of Mount Kalatungan using a combination of Visual Encounter Survey and Ethnobiological Survey. Three sampling sites (agricultural area, secondary forest, and primary forest) at an elevation of 1200-2200 masl were established in order to determine the species richness, species diversity, habitat and microhabitat preference, socio-economic importance, and the threats that these reptiles face. A total of 16 species of reptiles were recorded from the agricultural area and lower montane forest of Mount Kalatungan. Ten (62.5%) of these species were endemic. Species diversity for Mount Kalatungan was moderate at 2.5 with sampling site 1 having the highest diversity at 2.243. Most species were observed to occupy a type IV microhabitat. Reptiles listed in the CITES II are the Varanus salvator cumingi, Ophiophagus hannah, and Python reticulatus. They are usually utilized as both food and medicine together with other reptiles. Other threats that plague these reptiles include conversion of forest into an agricultural area mostly done through ‘kaingin’ farming.

Key words: endemic, Ethnobiological Survey, microhabitat, species richness, Visual Encounter Survey
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57. THE ENDEMIC AND THREATENED BIRDS OF MT. BALATUKAN, GINGOOG CITY, MISAMIS ORIENTAL, PHILIPPINES

Joanne Iris D. Rosal and Olga M. Nuñeza

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics
MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Andres Bonifacio Avenue
9200 Iligan City E-mail: jorusssh81@yahoo.com


Abstract

An inventory of the avifauna of Mt. Balatukan, Gingoog City, Misamis Oriental was conducted on May 17 to June 4 and on August 30 to September 1, 2005 accomplishing a total of 263 net days. Two sampling sites at elevations of 900-1200 masl and 1300-1600 masl were established. Mist netting and direct observation results showed 59 species of birds belonging to 12 orders, 28 families, and 49 genera. Out of the 59 species recorded, 31 are Philippine endemic species (52.5% endemism), 12 of which are endemic to Mindanao. Only one threatened species, Actenoides hombroni, and six near threatened species were recorded in the area. Sampling site 2 (1300-1600 masl), the site that had better habitat quality and lesser degree of disturbance, at the lower montane forest, had the highest species richness and diversity (H’ = 2.65).

The birds recorded in Mt. Balatukan comprised 18% of the birds recorded in Mindanao and 10% of the Philippine record. In terms of endemicity, Mt. Balatukan’s endemic bird species was about 16% of the endemic species recorded in the Philippines (195).

Mt. Balatukan is home to many species of birds especially the endemic species. Conversion of the forest for agricultural purposes and hunting are the two major threats to birds in the area. High endemism and prevailing threats indicate the need to conserve the avifauna of Mt. Balatukan through construction of the remaining habitats.

Key words: Actenoides hombroni, avifauna, Philippine endemic species, threatened species
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58. SPECIES RICHNESS OF NON-VOLANT MAMMALS IN MT. TAGO, BUKIDNON, PHILIPPINES

Anne Zyra T. Pilayre and Olga M. Nuñeza

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics
Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City
Phone: (063) 221-4050 local 137. Fax: (063) 221-4058.
E-mail: zypil@yahoo.com


Abstract

The study was conducted in Mt. Tago, Bukidnon from May – June 2005 to assess the species richness of non-volant mammals. Locally-made snap, live, and native traps were used to capture small non-volant mammals for 1,080 trap nights. Interviews and observations were done to assess the presence of the large non-volant mammals as well as determine their socioeconomic importance. Twenty-nine individuals of small non-volant mammals were captured, one Sundasciurus philippinensis was observed, one Urogale everetti, and seven large non-volant mammals were recorded. Among the captured animals, Apomys insignis had the highest relative abundance. Species diversity was found low (H’ =0.683) in the area. The non-endemic non-volant mammals recorded in Mt. Tago were Macaca fascicularis, Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, and Viverra tangalunga. Moreover, four of the assessed non-volant mammals were listed as vulnerable and one listed as rare under the IUCN threatened category. Interviews revealed that the non-volant mammals in Mt. Tago are hunted primarily for food and medicine. Some, however, are considered as pests while others are seen as having no value to the communities. Further studies are recommended to have a better understanding of the non-volant mammals in the area. Dissemination of the obtained results may enhance awareness on the status of non-volant mammals in the area. Environmental protection and conservation laws need to be implemented to protect the natural habitats of these mammals from destruction and disturbance.

Key words: environmental protection and conservation, species richness
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59. SPECIES DIVERSITY OF BUTTERFLIES WITH THEIR LARVAL FOOD PLANTS ON MOUNT KALATUNGAN, BUKIDNON, PHILIPPINES

Jade Frances D. Jandayran and Dennis A. Warguez

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics
Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City
Phone: (063) 221-4050 local 137. Fax: (063) 221-4058. E-mail: dektarz41@yahoo.com


Abstract

The study was conducted in Mt. Kalatungan, Bukidnon from May 15 to May 30, 2005 in three (3) sampling sites. These were: 1) agricultural area 2) secondary lower montane forest, and 3) primary lower montane forest. A total of 26 species of butterflies were collected belonging to five (5) families: Hesperidae, Lycaenidae Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, and Pieridae. Nymphalidae had the most number of species totaling 15, while Family Hesperidae had only one (1) species collected. Two (2) species of butterflies namely Delias henningia ottonia and Eurema blanda viselia were considered new record for Mt. Kalatungan range.

Most of the butterflies collected were endemic in the Philippines like Lethe chandica byzaccus, Menelaides hystaspes hystaspes, Menelaides deiphobus rumanzovia, and Ypthima stellera stellera. Species such as Atrophanerra semperi aphtonia, Cyrestes kudrati, Danaus melanippus edmondii, Euploea Tobleri snelleri, Eurema alitha alitha, Jamides bochus pulchrior, Junonia hedonia ida, Odara sp., Pothantus mingo mingo, Rohana rhea danao, Symbrenthia lilae semperi, Ypthima sempara chaboras, Ypthima sensilis Kashiwai were endemic specifically in Mindanao. There were no threatened species of butterflies in the study.

The presence of butterflies in the area indicated the presence of food plants. The more larval food plants were found, the more butterflies were observed. Seventeen (17) species of larval food plants were observed.
Destructions in the area like kaingin farming and conversion of forest into agricultural areas are the major threats to the butterflies in the area.

Key words: Hesperidae, Lycaenidae Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, and Pieridae.
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60. SPECIES DIVERSITY OF NON-VOLANT MAMMALS IN MOUNT BALATUKAN, GINGOOG CITY, MISAMIS ORIENTAL, PHILIPPINES

Beverly M. Cagod and Olga M. Nuñeza

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics
Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City
Phone: (063) 221-4050 local 137. Fax: (063) 221-4058.
E-mail: zypil@yahoo.com


Abstract

The study was conducted in Mt. Balatukan, Gingoog City, Misamis Oriental. Three sampling sites were established from May 18- June 4, 2005 for a total of 18 days of fieldwork. Species diversity of non-volant mammals was assessed for a total of 525 trap nights using the locally manufactured live and snap traps as well as indigenous traps locally called pasagad. Large non-volant mammals were recorded based on direct observation, photo documentation, and key informant interviews. Eleven species of small non-volant mammals, which included seven endemic, and three vulnerable species mostly confined to higher elevation of the mountain were recorded from the study area. Six species of large non-volant mammals of which two are endemic and one vulnerable and rare were also recorded. Apomys insignis, a Mindanao montane forest mouse that is endemic to the Mindanao Faunal Region was observed the most abundant (67.92%) and widely distributed. Results showed that endemism increased with elevation, and non-endemic species were unable to displace the endemic species at the higher elevation.

Key words: endemic species, forest mouse, vulnerable species
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61. SPECIES DIVERSITY OF BATS IN MT. BALATUKAN, GINGOOG, MISAMIS ORIENTAL, PHILIPPINES

Magdalene Mae L. Del Socorro and Olga M. Nuñeza

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics
Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City
Phone: (063) 221-4050 local 137. Fax: (063) 221-4058.
E-mail: ione_mag19@yahoo.com


Abstract

A field study was conducted for a total of 265 net nights in Mt. Balatukan, Gingoog, Misamis Oriental from May 15 to June 4, 2005 in two sampling sites selected according to elevation and habitat disturbance. Species richness and species diversity were determined while existing threats to the bat fauna were identified. Eight species of bats were documented of which four are endemic. Mt. Balatukan showed moderate species diversity ( H’ = 1.6628) and evenness(E = 0.7991). The Mindanao endemic Ptenochirus minor and the insect-eating Pipistrellus javanicus are two additional records to the list of bats in Misamis Oriental. Results indicate that despite habitat degradation in the area, Mt. Balatukan can still support a moderate diversity of bats.

Key words: endemic, habitat disturbance, Ptenochirus minor, species richness
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62. BIRD DIVERSITY IN THE NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN SIDE OF LAKE LANAO, MARAWI, LANAO DEL SUR, PHILIPPINES

Norlisah M. Pangcatan and Olga M. Nuñeza

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics
Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City
Phone: (063) 221-4050 local 137. Fax: (063) 221-4058.
E-mail: chromossy_cute@yahoo.com


Abstract

The bird species composition of the northern (secondary dipterocarp forest with patches of agroecosystem of Piagapo, Lanao del Sur) and southern (secondary forest of Bayang, Lanao del Sur) vicinity of Lake Lanao, Mindanao was determined through bird watching and mist netting for a total of 375 net days.

Fifty-three bird species which comprised of 23 caught and 30 observed species were recorded from the two sampling sites. There were 18 endemic species. None of the species was considered threatened or endangered although two were found near-threatened based on the IUCN criteria. Overall species diversity (H’=2.8284) was found moderate while a moderately even distribution (E=0.668) was recorded. Almost all the species were found to inhabit the two sampling sites. Based on key informant interviews, Amaurornis phoenicurus (white-breasted water hen) was found as socio-economically important. Conversion of forested areas into agricultural lands was considered as one of the major threats to the bird species in Lake Lanao and vicinity. Results imply the need to conserve the avifauna of Lake Lanao and environs through conservation of the habitats.

Key words: avifauna, bird watching, endangered, endemic species, threatened
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63. ELLIPTIC FOURIER SHAPE ANAYSIS OF LEAVES OF THE LIPSTICK PLANT CLEODENDUM VILLOSUM

Alma Abug 1, Richie Grace Lago2, Abundol Nawang2, Maribel Tizo3, Mark Anthony J. Torres,4 & Cesar G. Demayo 5

1 Mindanao Polytechnic State College, Cagayan de Oro City
2 Liceo de Cagayan University, Cagayan de Oro City
3 Misamis Oriental College of Agriculture and Technology
4 MSU-IIT, Iligan City


Abstract

Elliptic fourier shape analysis have been used in many studies to determine shape variations in many organisms. Comparison of shapes between those varieties with distinct flower colors based on the principal component analysis and canonical variate analysis (CVA) of procrustes data of the left, right or center leaves showed major differences in shape may have genetic basis. Likewise, ordination results showed significant shape variation between the two groups of plants. Ordination of the leaf samples revealed that the varieties are separated along the first principal component which accounts for most of the shape variation observed.

Key words: canonical variate analysis, component analysis, genetic basis, shape variations
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64. BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS IN MT. BALATUKAN, GINGOOG CITY, MISAMIS ORIENTAL, PHILIPPINES

Leigh Blanche O. Bautista

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics
Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City
Email:leigh_blanche19@yahoo.com


Abstract

This study was conducted from May 15 to June 4, 2005 in Mt.Balatukan, Gingoog City, Misamis Oriental in order to assess the species composition of butterflies and moths present in the area. Two sampling sites were established. The first site was in Sitio Civoleg, Brgy. Lunotan (900-1200 masl), an agroecosystem area while Site 2 was a secondary dipterocarp forest, situated in Sitio San Isidro, Brgy. Lunotan (1300-1600 masl).

Sweep nets were used in collecting butterflies and moths. Fifty species were collected, where 29 were butterflies belonging to five families, and 21 were moths also belonging to five families. No threatened species was recorded. Fifteen endemic species comprising of 10 butterflies and five moths were listed. The observed threats to the Lepidopteran fauna were cultivation of land for tomato and sweet potato plantations. The presence of endemic species indicates that the environmental conditions in Mt. Balatukan are relatively good since these endemic species still thrive in this area.

Key words: agroecosystem area, endemic species, Lepidopteran fauna, secondary dipterocarp forest
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65. THE SNAKES OF MT. BALATUKAN, GINGOOG, MISAMIS ORIENTAL, PHILIPPINES

Maria Frances S. Pinto and Olga M. Nuneza

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics
Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology
Iligan City, Philippines


Abstract

Assessment of the snake faunal population of Mt. Balatukan, Gingoog, Misamis Oriental was done from May 15 to September 2, 2005 for 25 field days in two different sampling sites. Sampling site 1 was a mixed agroecosystem and secondary dipterocarp forest with patches of agroforest at 900-1,200 masl. Sampling site 2 was a lower montane forest transition zone at 1,300-1,500 masl. This aimed primarily to determine Mt. Balatukan’s snake species composition and diversity, list the endemic and non-endemic snakes, and account for their socioeconomic significance and the threats to their population.

Eight species, belonging to families Colubridae and Elapidae, were recorded in Mt. Balatukan. Rhabdophis chrysargos, a non-endemic water snake captured in Mt. Balatukan, is a new record for Mindanao, having been previously known only in Balabac, Culion, Palawan, and Marinduque. Mt. Balatukan also recorded a high endemicity (50%) and a moderate diversity (H’=1.704). Sampling site 1 recorded a higher species richness (S=8) and moderate diversity (H’=1.795) compared to Sampling site 2 (S=1, H’=0). A relatively even distribution was also noted in Sampling site 1 with E=0.683, contrary to that of Sampling site 2 with E=0.

No threatened snake species according to IUCN Criteria was recorded in Mt. Balatukan but according to what was locally observed, all snake species were threatened due to the practices of the local people and the fast rate at which human settlements and economic developments encroach the forest lands. Elaphe erythrura, one of the snake species hunted for its meat, and the venomous snake, Naja naja samarensis, which was observed and reported as readily killed once encountered, were much more threatened. Major existing threats to the snake faunal population in Mt. Balatukan were habitat loss and fragmentation due to kaingin, conversion of forest lands to settlements and agricultural areas, and the lease or sale of forest lands. It appears that effective conservation of Mt. Balatukan lies in the hands of the communities. Formulation of integrated conservation and sustainable developmental strategies and educational campaigns to enhance the knowledge of the indigenous people on the importance of the conservation of the said mountain could be an important step towards the conservation not only of the snake population but also of the whole biodiversity of Mt. Balatukan.

Key words: forest lands, endemic and non-endemic snakes, integrated conservation, species composition and diversity, sustainable developmental strategies
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66. NITROGEN FACILITATION AND COMPETITION IN TIMBER TREE – MAIZE AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS

Mercado, A.R., Jr.1,2, Pailagao, C.2, van Noordwijk, M.3, Hilger, T.1 and Cadisch, G.1

1Institute of Plant Production and Agroecology in the Tropics and Subtropics, University of Hohenheim, Germany
2 World Agroforestry Centre, Claveria, Philippines,
3World Agroforestry Centre, Bogor, Indonesia


Abstract

Contour hedgerow is one of the agroforestry systems suitable for sloping upland soils in the humid tropics to enhance productivity, profitability, and protective functions of farming system in a sustainable manner. Smallholder farmers in Southeast Asia have adopted timber trees in association with food crops on the frontiers of infertile grassland soils as a dominant enterprise using their own capital resources. Crop yields in such mixed stands are governed by nutrient facilitation and competition, particularly for nitrogen. A half-drum experiment was conducted in Claveria, Misamis Oriental, Philippines (8o38’ N 124o55’ E) to understand below ground N dynamics during simulataneous and sequential phases of timber trees (Acacia mangium or Gmelina arborea) in association with maize, and supplied with 0 and 80 N kg ha-1 during 3 cropping cycles: 1 simultaneous and 2 sequential cycles. Tree plant parts were labelled using 15N using stem injection technique in order to quantify N transfer during simultaneous phase, and to partition tree above and belowground N contributions to subsequent maize crops. N fertilizer was also labelled with 15N during the sequential phase. N2 fixation of Acacia was determined using the 15N natural abundance method.

During the simultaneous phase, N2 fixation of Acacia was estimated at 34% and 59%, with and without N application, respectively. The results of the 15N natural abundance method also indicated that maize plants without N application received 15% of their N shared from Acacia trees, and in contrast, only 3% when fertilized with N. Trees depressed associated maize growth, except for grain yield when associated with Acacia, and fertilized with N. Application of 80 N kg ha-1 alleviated negative effects of Acacia suggesting that N was limiting for maize. Gmelina plant biomass responded strongly to N application, but Acacia biomass did not. N fertilizer use efficiency of maize in the Acacia system was 34%, but only 16% in the Gmelina system. Gmelina had taken up 35% of the applied N, while Acacia took up only 3% indicating that applied N was more available for maize in the Acacia rather than in the Gmelina system.
During the sequential phase, roots of Acacia had a higher (10%) N turnover, than those of Gmelina (3%) during the first maize crop. Acacia also had a larger root biomass, which in association of finer, higher quality (low C:N ratio, low in polyphenols) roots led to a larger positive maize yield response compared to Gmelina roots. However, Acacia had low quality leaf material that led to microbial immobilization of N and hence led to poor maize performance. In contrast Gmelina had higher quality leaf materials contributing to net N mineralization.

Acacia mangium, due to the lower competitiveness and higher below-ground N facilitation of N to the associate maize is better suited for mixed agroforestry systems than Gmelina aborea.

Key words: Acacia mangium, Gmelina aborea, farming system, grassland soils
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67. ELLIPTIC FOURIER ANALYSIS (EFA) OF MORPHOLOGICAL DISPARITY IN THE SHAPE OF THE PELVIC GIRDLE AMONG FOUR SPECIES OF BATS

Gianhope T. Silao, Mark Anthony J. Torres, & Cesar G. Demayo

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics
MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City Email: c_gdemayo@yahoo.com


Abstract

Previous studies have shown that patterns of skull shape variation among several species bats are related to their feeding ecology. In this study, the shapes of the pelvic girdles of one insectivorous and three frugivorous bats were compared using the method of Elliptic Fourier Analysis (EFA). In order to do this, the pelvic girdles of the bat samples were scanned at 800 dpi. Then the x and y coordinates of a total of 185 sample points were collected from around the contour of the bones using an image analysis and processing software. EFA of these coordinates returned a total of 40 coefficients that were used to reconstruct the shapes of the pelvic bones of each bat sample. The EFA coefficients were also used as morphometric variables for multivariate statistical analysis such as principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis. The result of the PCA of the EFA coefficients required a total of three significant components to account for 94.73% of the variance in the shape space. Of these, the first component explained 90% of the variance and was accounted for by almost all of the outline coordinates. This space produced an ordination of the species with the insectivore R. rufus separated from the frugivores Ptenochirus jagori, Ctenopterus brachyotis, and Rousettus amplexicaudatus along the first principal component axis. This translates into saying that the overall shape of the pelvic bone of the R. rufus differs remarkably from those of the three other species. Also, the association of all frugivores as shown in the PCA scatter plot may indicate functional similarity among the three bat species. The morphological disparity in the shape of the pelvic girdles observed in this study may suggest important differences in the locomotor architecture between the two groups of bats.

Key words: locomotor architecture, morphometric variables
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68. VARIATIONS IN FACIAL MORPHOLOGY OF DIABETICS USING LANDMARK–BASED ANALYSIS SUPPLEMENTED WITH VARIOUS MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSES

Corilyn Joy C. Veña, Mark Anthony J. Torres, & Cesar G. Demayo

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics
MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City Email: c_gdemayo@yahoo.com

Abstract

Clinical studies have shown that diabetes mellitus can produce edema resulting from the accumulation of fluid in various tissues in the body. Thus, this study is an attempt to explore morphological variations in the face of people with diabetes which may be consequences of facial edema brought about by diabetes mellitus. A total of 63 male and female individuals known to have diabetes mellitus were included in this study with ages ranging from 30 to 60. For data acquisition, digital images of the faces of each patient were taken. For standardization, only pictures of patients with no moustache, no beard, and no eye glasses and with neutral face expression were considered. A total of 43 manually positioned anthropomorphic landmarks were collected, the Cartesian coordinates of which were extracted using an image analysis and processing software. The faces were then aligned using Procrustes alignment of the Cartesian coordinates to eliminate size differences and rotational translation. The size residuals left after the alignment were then used to reconstruct the face truss network using thin-plate spline grids. Variations in facial morphology were then explored using the methods of relative warps analysis and partial warps analysis supplemented with various multivariate statistical analyses. Results showed drooping of the brownridge portion of the face in most of the patients, drooping of the chin and bulging of the cheek surface among the affected individuals. Also, facial asymmetry seems to be a common feature among the individuals surveyed as shown by the direction of shape change indicated by the first partial warp. Ordination of the samples based on the shape residuals showed similar shape changes for both sexes as shown by the overlapping of the convex hulls. This result indicates that similar manifestations can be seen in the two sexes as a result of the accumulation of fluid in the underlying tissues of the face.

Key words: anthropomorphic landmarks, facial edema, Procrustes alignment
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69. LANDMARK-BASED ANALYSIS OF SCAPULAR SHAPE VARIATIONS IN BATS

Putri Hadjaliah T. Baser, Mark Anthony J. Torres, & Cesar G. Demayo

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics
MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City Email: c_gdemayo@yahoo.com

Abstract

This study was done to determine variations in the shapes of the scapula between frugivorous and insectivorous bats. In order to do this, the scapulae of the bat samples were scanned at uniform dpi for standardization. Shape analysis was then done using landmark-based analysis of predefined points in the scapula that represent homologous characters common to all bat species. Using an image analysis software, the x and y coordinates of the landmark points were extracted and subjected to procrustes registration that allowed for the separation of the size and shape components. The shape residuals were then subjected to thin-plate spline analysis to enable reconstruction and comparison of the mean shapes of the scapula the different bat species. Shape variations among the different species were explored using the method of relative warps and partial warps analyses. Both affine and non-affine components of shape variations were scored. The procrustes fitted values were also subjected to multivariate methods of statistical analysis such as principal component analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, discriminant function analysis, and cluster analysis. Size differences among the different bat species were also determined using the Euclidean distance matrix algorithm which measures the Euclidean distances between any two landmarks. Results showed significant shape variation between the two groups of bats. Ordination of the bat samples revealed that the two groups of bats are separated along the first principal component which accounts for most of the shape variation observed. The scapula, together with the surrounding musculature forms the locomotor architecture of the bats. Thus, the observed differences in the shape of the scapula between the two bat groups reflect different life history traits that may be most related to differences in their flight ecology.

Key words: flight ecology, homologous characters, musculature forms
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70. MANDIBULAR SHAPE VARIATION IN FRUGIVOROUS AND INSECTIVOROUS BATS: REFLECTION OF FEEDING ECOLOGY DIFFERENCES?

Angela Cariaga, Mark Anthony J. Torres, Cesar G. Demayo

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics
MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City Email: c_gdemayo@yahoo.com

Abstract

Differences in the morphology of the cranium between frugivorous and insectivorous bats were determined in this study using geometric morphometrics (GM), specifically landmark-based analysis which relies on predefined landmarks that are chosen on the basis of homology. GM provides superior advantage over traditional morphometrics because it allows separate analyses for the size and shape components of biological form through Procrustes fitting and Euclidean distance matrix algorithm. This study was carried out by digitizing the cranium of the bat samples. Cartesian coordinates of the landmarks were then extracted using an image processing and analysis software. Shape analysis was done by subjecting the coordinates to procrustes registration that allows elimination of size and rotational translation. Then, the mean shapes of the cranium were reconstructed and compared using thin-plate spline transformation grids. Both local and global components of shape variation were also determined through the analysis of relative and partial warp scores. Multivariate methods of statistical analysis were also employed to supplement the results of the GM analysis. Results showed significant differences in the shape of the cranium between the frugivorous and insectivorous bats. Shape deformation grids determined that variations between the two groups of bats were concentrated on the snout area, reflecting differences in their feeding ecology. The results of this study revealed that the size and shape components of the cranium are fundamental features of form and function that affect how bats feed.

Key words: feeding ecology, geometric morphometrics, Procrustes fitting and Euclidean distance
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71. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF ONE’S SUSCEPTIBILITY TO HEALTH PROBLEMS BASED ON TWIN STUDIES

Crysthyll Capa, Mark Anthony J. Torres, & Cesar G. Demayo

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics
MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City Email: c_gdemayo@yahoo.com


Abstract

Genetic basis of one’s susceptibility to health problems using one-hundred twenty (120) health descriptors for heart, joints, stress, and alcohol consumption, respiratory, cancer, and digestive disorders was conducted on 22 identical and 15 dizygotic male twins, 27 identical and 8 dizygotic female twins. Results showed some differences between sexes – high concordance rates were observed in both monozygotic and dizygotic male twins on heart, digestive, cancer and alcohol consumption while in females both monozygotic and dizygotic females showed high concordance for heart, digestive, cancer, alcohol consumption, respiratory and stress susceptibility. These results indicate females were more prone to stress and respiratory problems than male twins. The high concordance and variations in sex showed that human susceptibility to health disorders have genetic basis.

Key words: genetic basis, identical, dizygotic, and monozygotic twins
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72. COLORMORPHISM IN THE SWORDTAIL FISH : POPULATION VARIATION IN BODY SHAPES

Edgar Vincent Quitos, Mark Anthony J. Torres, & Cesar G. Demayo

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics
MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City Email: c_gdemayo@yahoo.com


Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the extent of morphological variation in the common freshwater fish Xiphophorus helleri using landmark-based analysis of the truss network. A total of 15 landmarks were chosen, the Cartesian coordinates of which were collected using an image analysis software. The fish truss networks were aligned using Procrustes fitting which eliminated size and rotational translation. The shape residuals left after the Procrustes fitting were then subjected to thin-plate spline grid analysis which allowed comparison of the mean shapes of the male and female fishes. The samples collected from Lawis, Burrun, Iligan City showed the existence of two adult color morphs, namely green and red. Thus, shape variation between these two color morphs was also assessed. Ordination of the fish samples was also done using the relative warp scores and partial warp scores computed using the shape residuals. Sizes of the fishes were also measured and compared using the Euclidean distance matrix algorithm which returned a matrix of interlandmark distances. Result showed overlapping of the convex hulls in the shape space after ordination of all samples. However, when the shape and size residuals were separately subjected to multivariate analysis of variance, the result showed significant differences between the males and the females and between the two color morphs. Subsequent tests for significant mean differences using Hotelling’s t2 test and discriminant function analysis also gave concordant results. The results of this study revealed sexual dimorphism both in shape and size in this species of fish. Morphological disparity between the two color morphs are discussed in the light of evolution.

Key words: Procrustes fitting, interlandmark distances, sexual dimorphism, Xiphophorus helleri
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73. NEMATICIDAL ACTIVITY OF GARDEN BALSAM AND GARDEN SPURGE EXTRACTS AGAINST THE ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE (MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA) IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM)

D. D. Amodia and B. T. Dionio

University of Southeastern Philippines (USEP), Apokon, Tagum City
Email: beldionio@yahoo.com


Abstract

Crude extracts of mature garden balsam fruits and garden spurge (whole plant) applied as drenched were evaluated for their nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, using two-month-old tomato (Hybrid-7) plants as test host.

Root length and top weight of infested tomato plants were not significantly affected by the application of mature garden balsam fruit extract and garden spurge extract. Root weight, however, was significantly reduced in tomato plants drenched with garden balsam fruit extract ( 2.04g) comparable to the effects of Furadan 3G at 200 ppm and 500 ppm (2.17g and 1.70 g, respectively). Root weight of untreated tomato plants was 5.20 g.

Severity of root galling likewise differed significantly among treatments. Drenching with garden balsam fruit extract resulted to significantly lower percentage infection index of 25.29% (root-knot rating=2) comparable to the effects of furadan 3G at 200 ppm (25.34%, root-knot rating =3) and 500 ppm (24.73%; root-knot rating= 1). Use of garden spurge extract yielded significantly higher infection index of 35.55% with root-knot rating of 4.

Consequently, higher percentage reduction in the severity of root galling resulted in tomato plants drenched with garden balsam fruit extract ( 39.02%) than those drenched with garden spurge extract (14.27%). Use of furadan 3G at 200 ppm and 500 ppm resulted to 38.89% and 40.37% reduction in the severity of galling in tomato roots.

Key words: root galls, plant extracts, bionematicide, biopesticides
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74. FUNGICIDAL EFFECT OF GARDEN BALSAM (IMPATIENS BALSAMINA) AGAINST FOLIAR BLIGHT OF DURIAN SEEDLINGS CAUSED BY PHYTOPHTHORA PALMIVORA BUTLER

B. T. Dionio, A. Gerida, and M. Bandala

University of Southeastern Philippines (USEP), Apokon, Tagum City
Email: beldionio@yahoo.com


Abstract

Four kinds of garden balsam (Impatiens balsamina) were evaluated for fungicidal activity against P. palmivora causing foliar blight of durian. In the in vitro test, crude extracts of mature fruits of red and violet garden balsam completely inhibited the growth of P. palmivora comparable to the effect of fosetyl-al.

The time of extract application affected the number of lesions induced by P. palmivora on three-month-old durian seedlings ('Monthong' variety). Spraying of extract one hour before spray inoculation of P. palmivora and one hour after inoculation significantly reduced lesion number with 86.0% and 78.0% reduction in number of lesions, respectively. Application of extract 24 hours before inoculation of P. palmivora also yielded comparable results with 60.0% reduction in lesion number.

Consequently, percentage defoliation was significantly lower in seedlings sprayed with garden balsam extract one hour before inoculation ( 13.4%) , 24 hours before (12.6%) inoculation and one hour after inoculation (12.2%) relative to spraying with P. palmivora alone (33.2%); percentage reduction in defoliation was 59.6, 62.0, and 63.2%, respectively.

Key words: crude extracts, percentage defoliation
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75. SPECIES DIVERSITY OF LIZARDS IN MT. BALATUKAN, GINGOOG, MISAMIS ORIENTAL, PHILIPPINES

Mariphil Lasquite Paculba

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City 9200

Email: muffy_paculba@yahoo.com


Abstract

Assessment of lizard species in two sampling sites in Mt. Balatukan of Mindanao Island in the Philippines was conducted for a total of 21 field days from May 14 to June 4, 2005. A combination of bucket and drift fencing (pitfall traps), quadrat sampling, and intensive searching (opportunistic) methods were employed. Fourteen lizard species were documented of which seven were listed as Philippine endemic. These are Brachymeles schadenbergi orientalis Brown and Rabor, Brachymeles cf. boulengeri Taylor , Sphenomorphus diwata Brown and Rabor, Sphenomorphus fasciatus Gray, Sphenomorphus mindanensis Taylor, Sphenomorphus steerei Stejneger, and an unidentified Sphenomorphus species. Findings of this study showed high species diversity (H'= 2.477), species richness (S=14), and endemism (50%) indicating a relatively healthy environment. However, to ensure the sustainability of resources in Mt. Balatukan, there is an urgent need to conserve the remaining forests.

Key words: bucket and drift fencing (pitfall traps), endemism, quadrat sampling, species richness
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76. GENETIC RESOURCES CONSERVATION AND UTILIZATION OF CACAO IN THE PHILIPPINES

RL Cena, RP Cabangbang, & EA Alcala

Plantation Crops Network, University of Southern Mindanao,
Kabacan, Cotabato


Abstract

Conservation of genetic resources of cacao is of major economic importance in the Philippines , particularly in view of lack of high yielding and disease resistant cacao clones/ varieties. In 1978, the country started its genetic conservation project at UPLB and was duplicated in different areas of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. At USM, 88 accessions are maintained in the gene bank and additional 77 of Criollo-related clones were added to the collection. Each accession was characterized based on morphological descriptors and 45 clones were used in the study for diversity analysis using morphological and isozyme markers. Six enzyme systems (ACP, IDH, MDH, PER, ADH, and EST) showed good to excellent band resolution. Three diversity groups were established for morphological analysis and 11 groups for isozyme analysis. Field performance evaluation conducted by TRRC identified SCA-12 and UF-650 as the highest yielders with 2.580 and 2.286 tons/ha, respectively, while hybrids introduced from Malaysia gave yields ranging from 0.664 to 1.251 tons/ha, At USM, BR-25, UIT 1, ICS40 DR, and P7 were found promising while farmers' selections K1, K2, UF-18, and S5 gave consistently good yield in their plantation. These clones were submitted to the National Seed Industry Council (NSIC) for registration and approved for commercial release in 2001 and 2003. Budwood/scion groves were established in 18 different sites throughout the country and serve as source of scion for nursery owners and propagators for the massive expansion of cacao plantation in the Philippines.

Key words: hybrids, isozyme, enzyme system, scion groves
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77. ANURANS OF MT. BALATUKAN, GINGOOG, MISAMIS ORIENTAL,
MINDANAO, PHILIPPINES

Bobeth G. Laguting and Olga M. Nuñeza

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics, MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Email: burghers_69@yahoo.com


Abstract

Field study was conducted from May to June 2005 using quadrat, pitfall trap, and visual encounter survey methods to determine the distribution of anurans in Mt. Balatukan Gingoog, Misamis Oriental. The sites were selected based on the type of vegetation and elevation. Eleven species and 106 individuals were collected of which five species (45%) are endemic and four species ( 36.36%) are listed under vulnerable threat category in the 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and The Global Amphibian Assessment (GAA) list. Mt. Balatukan recorded poor species diversity (H' = 0.972). Moreover, the value of species evenness (E = 0.4054) indicated that species that occurred in the area were not evenly distributed. Only Limnonectes magnus and Rana grandocula were found common in the area. Based on key informant interviews, only Limnonectes magnus has socio-economic importance. Threats to anurans in Mt. Balatukan include, kaingin, conversion of the forest to agriculture, illegal logging, and clearing of forested areas for the construction of roads and houses. Due to the continuing habitat loss in the area, much attention and more strategic planning for conservation of the remaining habitat should be undertaken.

Key words: endemic, forested areas, species diversity, species evenness



Posted by pssn on 02/22/2006 10:37 PM [30976 views]





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